2013 | 9 | 203-220
Article title

Czwarte przebudzenie Ameryki

Title variants
Languages of publication
In this article we see Great Awakenings as the results of critical dis-junction in self-understanding. They are not brief outbursts of mass emo-tionalism by one group or another but profound cultural transformations affecting all Americans and extending over a generation or more. Awak-enings begin in periods of cultural distortion and grave personal stress, when people lose faith in legitimacy of norms, the viability of institutions and the authority of leaders in state and church. They eventuate in basic reconstructing of institutions and redefinitions of social goals. Great awakenings are not periods of social neurosis, they are times of revitali-zation, they are therapeutic and cathartic, not pathological. They restore cultural verve and self-confidence, helping to maintain faith. Revivals and awakenings occur in all cultures. They are essentially folk move-ments, the means by which a people or a nation reshapes its identity, transform its patterns of thought and action and sustains a healthy rela-tionship with environmental and social change. To understand the func-tions of American revivalism and revitalization is to understand the pow-er and meaning of America.
Physical description
  • Bragdon H.W., S.P. McCutchen, D.A. Ritchie, History of a Free Nation, Glerncoe 1992.
  • Campbell N., Kean A., American Cultural Studies, New York 1997.
  • Chafe W.H., America since 1945, [w:] The New American History, ed. E. Foner, Philadelphia 1990.
  • Chomsky N., Pirates and Emperors Old and New International Terrorism in the Real World, London 2002.
  • Conkin P.L., Puritans and Pragmatists, New York 1976.
  • Cronin T.E., Genovese M.A., The Paradoxes of American Presidency, New York 1998.
  • Dahl R., Who Governs?, New Haven 1989.
  • Dictionary of Christianity America, ed. D.G. Reid, Downers Grove 1990.
  • Diggins J.P., The Promise of Pragmatism, Chicago 1994.
  • Diggins J.P., The Proud Decades. America in War and Peace 1941–1960, New York 1989.
  • Foner E., The New American History, Philadelphia 1990.
  • Galtung J., The New World Intellectual Order, [w:] Invisible Crisis, ed M. Grabner, H. Mowlana. H.I. Schiller, New York 1996.
  • Gaustad E.S., The Great Awakening in New England, Gloucester 1965.
  • Gitlin T., Years of Hope. Days of Rage, New York 1993.
  • Goldfarb J.C., The Cynical Society, Society. The Culture of Politics and Politics of Culture in American Life, Chicago 1991.
  • Hagstrom J., Beyond Reagan. The New Landscape of American Politics, New York 1988.
  • Halberstam D., The Fifties, New York 1983.
  • Herman E.S., Chesnay R.W., The Global Media. The New Missionaries of Corporate Capitalism, London 1999.
  • Huntington S.P., Who are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity, New York 2004.
  • Johnson H., The Best of Times, San Diego 2002.
  • Johnson L., Message to Congress, [w:] Twentieth Century America, Ed.J.A. Garraty, R.A. Divine, Boston 1968.
  • King M.L., Nonviolence and Racial Justice, [w:] American Religious History, ed. A. Porterfield, Oxford 2002.
  • Kneble R., The Myth of Saddam Hussein, [w:] Media Ethics, ed. M. Kieran, London 1998.
  • Kutler S.I., The Wars of Watergate, New York 1990.
  • Landau J., The Age of Rock, New York 1996.
  • Lipsistz S., Who’ll Stop the Rain, [w:] The Sixties, ed. D. Farber, Raleigh 1994.
  • Litwak R.S., Rogue States and US Foreign Policy, Baltimore 2000.
  • Love J.F., McDonalds. Behind the Arches, New York 1995.
  • Lowi T.J., Ginsberg B., American Government. Freedom and Power, New York 1998.
  • Malcolm X, Good’s Judgement of White America, [w:] American Religious History, ed. A. Potterfield, Oxford 2002.
  • Matusow A.J., The Unravelling of America. A History of Liberalism in the 1960’s, New York 1986.
  • Mc Loughlin W.G., Reviwals, Awakenings, Chicago 1978.
  • McLoughlin W.G., Reviwals, Awakenings and Reforms, Chicago 1978.
  • Milkis S.M., The President anod the Parties, New York 1983.
  • Miller L., War is Sell, [w:] Tell Me Lies. Propaganda and Media Distortion in the Attac on Iraq ed. D. Miller, London 2004.
  • Newman K.S., Declining Fortunes. The Withering of American Dream, New York 1993.
  • O’Connor J.E., Image as Arifact, Malabar 1990.
  • Patterson J.Y., America’s Struggle against Poverty, Harvard 1994.
  • Pious R.M., American Politics nd Government, New York 1986.
  • Postman N., Zabawić się na śmierć, Warszawa 2003.
  • Ryan M., Kellner D., The Politics and Ideology of Contemporary Hollywood Film, [w:] Movies and American Society, New York 1955.
  • Ryan M., Kelner D., Camera Politica. The Politics and Ideology in Contemporary Hollywood Film, Bloomington 1990.
  • Schell J., The Time of Illusion, New York 1976.
  • Schulman B.J., The Seventies. The Great Shift in American Culture, Society and Politics, New York 2001.
  • Schulman B.J., The Seventies. The Great Shift in American Culture, Society and Politics, New York 2001.
  • Shelton R., Born to Win. Wody Gutgrie, New York 1970.
  • Spanier J., Hook S.W., American Foreign Policy, University of Missouri 1995.
  • Sterling O., The Trouble they Seen. The Story of Reconstruction in the Words of African Americanas, New York 1994.
  • Strinati D., Popular Culture, New York 1995.
  • Wolfowitz P., The New Defence Strategy. Beyond Cold War to New World Order, [w:] Rethinking America’s Security, ed. G. Allison, G.B. Trevcoton, New York 1992.
  • Ziff L., Writnig in the New Nation, New Haven 1991.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.