2014 | 1(1) | 151-167
Article title

Miękkie finansowanie jako kluczowy czynnik w powstawaniu bańki cenowej na rynku nieruchomości

Title variants
The soft budget constraint as the key factor in formation of real estate bubble
Languages of publication
The multiplicity of approaches and perspectives used for the explanation of enormous price increases indicates the complexity of this process. The aim of the article is the explanation of the real estate bubble through the identification of soft budget constraint as the key factor in its formation. For this purpose the soft budget constraint has been defined in the aspect of the real estate bubble on two levels of capital creation. The first one placed in the sphere of real economy is the meeting place of lenders and borrowers looking for the source of financing of the real estate assets. The second placed in the finance sphere is a meeting place of banks and other financial institutions generating the capital on a huge scale. In the article the institutional basis of soft budget constraint has been analyzed from the perspective of two levels of generation of capital by the identification of key factors in connection with enormous price increase. The research has been performed for three countries: Spain, the United States of America and Poland. In the performed analysis there were described the factors of soft budget constraint similar and different for each of the country. The performed research of soft budget constraint led to the following conclusions. In all of the analyzed countries severe credit policy had not a preventing function and was rather an answer for the emerging economic conditions. The soft credit policy was realized for the longer period of time only in the United States and in this country had the most significant impact on the increase of credit action and growth of real estate prices. The analysis of the lending standards shows symptoms of soft budget constraint in the real sphere. In each of the analyzed countries the mortgages were granted even for the period of fifty years, with the zero down payments, many times with the loan to value ratio above 100%. The next factor of soft budget constraint was the introduction of new banking products in the United States and Spain such as interest-only mortgages and adjustable rate mortgages. In the financial sphere the huge in size accelaration of generation of capital was identified in the form of securitization present on an enourmous scale in the United States and on a smaller scale in Spain. This process led to the additional credit action by the elimination of toxic assets from the balance sheets and transfer of a risk which also finally led to real estate price increases. The research of the quality of mortgages portfolios confirmed the existence of the soft budget constraint factors in the period of boom on the real estate market. In each of the examined countries there was an increase of share of nonperforming loans in the value of all mortgages. The highest dynamic of increase of nonperfoming loans was identifed in the United States. In this country the cumulation of several factors of soft budget constraints was observed on each of analyzed levels. This cumulation led to
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