2015 | 4/2015 (56) | 177-194
Article title

How New Is Crowdfunding? The Venture Capital Evolution without Revolution – Discourse on Risk Capital Themes and their Relevance to Poland

Title variants
Jak nowe jest zjawisko finansowana społecznościowego? Ewolucja kapitału wysokiego ryzyka bez rewolucji – rozważania o zagadnieniach kapitału podwyższonego ryzyka i ich znaczeniu dla Polski
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This conceptual paper discourses the emergence and development of crowdfunding as a step of the broader risk capital evolution. In doing so, we call for a more careful discussion about whether crowdfunding is the next big thing in risk capital mechanisms or a continuity of risk capital instruments, which matches technological regime changes and aligns to economic and social development. Based on a historical overview of types of funding, we elaborate that the risk capital market follows an evolutionary rather than revolutionary progression, where crowdfunding developed as a continuity of business angel, venture capital and microfinance mechanisms. This paper also provides policy implications by discoursing the risk capital evolution and highlights the importance of diversification in risk capital institutions to drive entrepreneurial activity.
W artykule omówiono powstanie i rozwój zjawiska finansowania społecznościowego jako etapu szerszej pojętej ewolucji kapitału podwyższonego ryzyka. Rozważając tę problematykę, autorzy postulują dokładniejsze przedyskutowanie kwestii, czy finansowanie to jest kolejnym kamieniem milowym w rozwoju mechanizmów kapitału podwyższonego ryzyka czy też stanowi kontynuację tego rodzaju instrumentów, która jest zgodna ze zmianami w reżimie technologicznym i zbieżna z rozwojem społecznogospodarczym. Na podstawie historycznego przeglądu rodzajów finansowania stwierdzono, że rynek kapitału podwyższonego ryzyka ulega zmianom ewolucyjnym, a nie rewolucyjnym, a finansowanie społecznościowe było kontynuacją takich mechanizmów jak aniołowie biznesu, kapitał wysokiego ryzyka i mikrofinanse. W artykule przedstawiono także konsekwencje dla polityki oraz wskazano znaczenie dywersyfikacji instytucji dostarczających taki kapitał w stymulowaniu przedsiębiorczości.
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