POLSKIE NAZWY MIEJSCOWE TYPU KOLONISTY, KOMORNIKI, PARCELANCI
POLISH PLACE NAMES OF THE TYPE KOLONISTY, KOMORNIKI, PARCELANCI
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In this article, Polish place names are discussed that come from collective designations of first inhabitants and encompass their socio-legal status, which is connected with the ancient socio-economical realities of the Polish village: Chalupniki, Ciągle, Dworaki, Dwudniaki, Dziadaki, Dziadowniki, Dziady, Gospodarze, Kmiecie, Kolonisty, Kolonisci, Komorniki, Morgowniki, Okupniki, Osadnicy, Osadniki, Parcelaki, Parcelanci, Parcelanty, Parcelarze, Parcelisty, Piechotne, Siedlaki, Siodlaki, Siodloki, Trzydniaki, Wolniki, Zagrodniki, Zakupnicy, Zakupniki. All these oikonyms have a connection with human activity in the area of law, administration, among others the means of performing the corvee, the type of levy, the means of acquiring land under specified conditions, and settling new territory. Their motivation is rooted in relationships of real property ownership. From the point of view of form, they are original descriptions of persons in the plural, used in the function of naming a place that was inhabited by the given group of people. Formed directly from a common noun in the plural, they were transferred without any formal change to toponymy, where they appear in plural forms only in their basic referential function. In gender, they are either non-masculine-personal (Komorniki, Zakupniki) or masculine-personal (Osadnicy, Parcelanci); some appear in two forms, masculine-personal Koloniści, Osadnicy) as well as non-masculine-personal (Kolonisty, Osadniki). Classifying them unambiguously to appropriate semantico-formal groups, to only one naming type, is difficult; from the point of view of linguistic construction, they bring to mind names of the service-occupation type, but there is also the possibility of understanding these names as cultural, topographic, or ancestral.
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