DETERMINANTY NIETYPOWYCH FORM ZATRUDNIENIA ABSOLWENTÓW W POLSCE
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THE DETERMINANTS OF ATYPICAL FORMS OF EMPLOYMENT IN POLAND
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The article examines factors determining atypical forms of employment for graduates in Poland. According to the authors, labor market entry in Poland increasingly takes place through atypical—or flexible—forms of employment understood as any form of employment different than a permanent contract of employment. The role of atypical forms of employment in Poland has steadily increased since the country’s transition to a market economy in 1989, the authors say. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of these forms of employment in the 15-24 age group rose by 32 percentage points, while the average increase in the EU as a whole was only 3.5 points. International empirical studies show that atypical forms of employment can significantly influence many aspects of a professional career, the authors say. Some researchers argue that atypical forms of employment have a negative impact on wages (D. Bertrand-Cloodt et al. 2011; F. McGinnity et al. 2005) as well as on job satisfaction (M. de Graaf-Zijl 2005). Against this background, the authors set out to establish what individual characteristics determine the probability of atypical employment. They use logit models to identify individual determinants of short-term employment as well as of various forms of freelancing and post-graduate internships. The data comes from a special project administered by the Polish Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, called A Study of the Economic Activity of Graduates. The authors identify factors that increase the probability of atypical forms of employment. The most prominent factors include having graduated after 2004, being a woman, having a low level of education, postponing your labor market entry, and getting a first job that does not match your education profile, Wincenciak and Zys say. On the other hand, graduates with a university education and those whose parents are better educated are more likely to find permanent employment, the authors say.
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