PL EN


2014 | 14 | 2(30) | 97-123
Article title

Omani school and university students’ opinions about public transport: incentives and disincentives

Content
Title variants
PL
Opinie omańskich uczniów i studentów dotyczące transportu publicznego: bodźce i antybodźce
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The global shift to private transport is impacting on the environment in a number of ways, including increases in vehicle emissions that, in turn, contribute to the major problem of global warming and potential climate change. This suggests a need to improve strategies to encourage greater use of public transport. The aim of this study is to explore which aspects of public transport might be perceived as reducing its popularity, and which might act as motivators to increase its use. In order to act as a motivator, a positive characteristic must be both believed to be true of public transport and viewed as an important issue by individuals. In contrast, negative characteristics that are viewed as important are likely to act as deterrents to the use of public transport. A questionnaire was used to determine the views of Omani school and university students about such characteristics. Comfort, safety and short journey time were viewed as important, but these characteristics were believed to be inferior for public transport. Surprisingly in a country where new, large and expensive private vehicles are common, the social status associated with using different forms of transport was seen as less important, and few respondents believed that using public transport was socially embarrassing. There were some differences in the responses of male and female respondents, with more females than males viewing comfort, safety and convenience in terms of travelling at preferred times as important. From an eco-centric perspective, although many respondents viewed it as important that personal transport should not exacerbate global warming, only half believed that public transport could make a contribution here. Many of Oman’s public transport issues are structural, but education may still have a part to play in encouraging the use of public transport. (Throughout the article we use 'private transport' to mean cars and 'personal transport' to mean transport of persons (i.e. buses or cars)).
PL
Globalne przesunięcie zachowań transportowych w kierunku transportu prywatnego oddziałuje na środowisko na wiele sposobów, miedzy innymi poprzez emisję spalin, która z kolei przyczynia się do ogromnego problemu globalnego ocieplenia i potencjalnych zmian klimatycznych. To sugeruje potrzebę poprawy strategii zachęcających do większego wykorzystania transportu publicznego. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest ustalenie, jakie właściwości transportu publicznego mogą powodować spadek jego popularności, a które mogą działać jako czynniki motywujące do jego większego wykorzystania. Aby jednak uwidoczniło się to zachęcające oddziaływanie, użytkownicy transportu muszą uwierzyć w pozytywne cechy transportu publicznego i uznać je za istotne. Z kolei negatywne cechy, które przeważnie są uważane za znaczące, zwykle stanowią środek odstraszający. Komfort, bezpieczeństwo i krótki czas podróży zostały przez badanych uznane za istotne, lecz także ich poziom za niski w odniesieniu do transportu publicznego. Co zaskakujące, w kraju, w którym nowe, duże i drogie samochody osobowe stanowią powszechność, status społeczny kojarzony z różnymi sposobami przemieszczania się postrzegano jako mniej ważny i tylko kilku respondentów wierzyło, że podróżowanie transportem publicznym jest społecznie kompromitujące. Pojawiły się pewne różnice w odpowiedziach respondentów płci męskiej i żeńskiej, ponieważ komfort, bezpieczeństwo oraz czas podróży liczyły się dla większej liczby kobiet aniżeli mężczyzn. Z ekocentrycznego punktu widzenia, mimo że wielu badanych potwierdzało wagę negatywnego oddziaływania transportu prywatnego na globalne ocieplenie, tylko połowa wierzyła, że transport publiczny może się w jakiś sposób przyczynić do zmniejszenia tego problemu. Wiele zagadnień dotyczących omańskiego transportu publicznego ma charakter strukturalny, jednak edukacja nadal może odgrywać dużą rolę w zachęcaniu do korzystania z transportu publicznego.
Year
Volume
14
Issue
Pages
97-123
Physical description
Dates
online
2014-06
Contributors
  • Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
  • University of Western Macedonia, Greece
author
  • Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey
  • University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
author
  • University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
author
  • University of New England, Australia
References
  • Alwatan Newspaper (2013). Alwatan Newspaper 42 (10738), 11 (1 January 2013).
  • Ambusaidi, A.K.A. (2001). Oman. In: National Journeys towards Education for Sustainable Development. Co-ordinator Olivier Laboulle. Paris: UNESCO.
  • Ambusaidi, A.K.A.; Al-Rawahi, N.H.S. (2010). Promoting innovation and good practices in ESD: country case study - Sultanate of Oman. The Oman National Commission for Education, Culture and Science, Ministry of Education in co-operation with UNDESD Focal Point.
  • Ambusaidi, A.; Al-Zain, M. (2008). The science curriculum in Omani schools: Past, present and future. In Coll, R.; Taylor, N. (eds.). Science Education in Context: 85-97. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • Ambusaidi, A.; Boyes, E.; Stanisstreet, M.; Taylor, N. (2012). Omani students’ views about global warming: beliefs about actions and willingness to act. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education 21(1): 21-39.
  • Anable, J. (2005). ‘Complacent Car Addicts’ or ‘Aspiring Environmentalists’? Identifying travel behaviour segments using attitude theory. Transport Policy 12: 65-78.
  • Beirao, G.; Cabral, J.A.S. (2007). Understanding attitudes towards public transport and private car: A qualitative study. Transport Policy 14: 478-489.
  • Belwal, R.; Belwal, S. (2010). Public transportation services in Oman: A study of public perceptions. Journal of Public Transport 13(4), 1-21.
  • Bonnett, M. (2002). Education for sustainability as a frame of mind. Environmental Education Research 8(1): 9-20.
  • Böhler, S.; Grischkat, S.; Haustein, S.; Hunecke, M. (2006). Encouraging environmentally sustainable holiday travel. Transportation Research Part A 40: 652-670.
  • Boyes, E.; Stanisstreet, M. (1997). The environmental impact of cars: Children’s ideas and reasoning. Environmental Education Research 3(3): 269-282.
  • Boyes, E.; Stanisstreet, M. (1998). Children’s ideas about cars and health: an environmental motivator? Transportation Research D 3(2): 105-115.
  • Boyes, E.; Stanisstreet, M. (2001). Perceptions of asthma: the views of young people. Health Education 101(6): 264-273.
  • Collins, C. M.; Chambers, S. M. (2005). Pscyhological and situational influences on commuter-transport-mode choice. Environment and Behavior 37(5): 640-661.
  • Darçın, E.S.; Darçın, M. (2009). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin araç emisyonlarından kaynaklanan çevre problemleri hakkındaki bilgi seviyeleri (Secondary school students’ knowledge levels about environmental problems caused by vehicle emissions). Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 29(2): 485-512.
  • Dawe, G.; Jucker, R.; Martin, S. (2005). Sustainable development in higher education: Current practices and future developments. Available at: http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York. Accessed 3 January 2010.
  • Eriksson, L. (2009). Determinats of car users’ switching to public transport for the work commute. Licentiate thesis. Karlstad University Studies 2009: 40
  • Eriksson, L.; Foward, S.E. (2011). Is the intention to travel in a proenvironmental manner and the intention to use the car determined by different factors? Transportation Research Part D 16(5): 372-376.
  • Fellesson, M.; Friman, M. (2008). Perceived satisfaction with public transport service in nine European cities. Journal of the Transport Research Forum 47(3): 93-103.
  • Flamm, B. (2009). The impacts of environmental knowledge and attitudes on vehicle ownership and use. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 14: 272-279.
  • Gardner, B.; Abraham, C. (2007). What drives car use? A grounded theory analysis of commuters’ reasons for driving. Transportation Research Part F 10: 187-200.
  • Gardner, B.; Abraham, C. (2008). Psychological correlates of car use: A meta-analysis. Transportation Research Part F 11: 300-311.
  • Golob, T.F.; Hensher, D.A. (1998). Greenhouse gas emissions and Australian commuters’ attitudes and behaviour concerning abatement policies and personal involvement. Transportation Research Part D 3(1): 1-18.
  • Graham-Rowe, E., Skippon, S., Gardner, B.; Abraham, C. (2011). Can we reduce car use and, if so, how? A review of available evidence. Transportation Research Part A 45(5): 401-418.
  • Haldenbilen, S.; Ceylan, H. (2005) The development of a policy for road tax in Turkey, using a genetic algorithm approach for demand estimation. Transportation Research Part A 39: 861-877.
  • Hillman, M., Stanisstreet, M.; Boyes, E. (1996). Enhancing understanding in student teachers: The case of auto-pollution. Journal of Education for Teaching 22(3): 311-326.
  • Hunecke, M., Blöbaum, A., Matthies, E.; Höger, R. (2001). Responsibility and environment: Ecological norm orientation and external factors in the domain of travel mode choice behaviour. Environment and Behaviour 33(6): 830-852.
  • Hungerford, H.R.; Volk, T.L. (1990). Changing learning behaviour through environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education 21: 8–12.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1997). Executive Summary of the North American chapter on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001). Third Assessment Report. Available at: http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar. Accessed 10 June 2013.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Available at: http://www.ipc.ch/. Accessed 12 November 2007.
  • Johnson, S.P. (1993). The Earth Summit: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Graham and Trotman/Martinus Nijhoff: London.
  • Kilinç, A.; Boyes, E.; Stanisstreet, M. (2011). Turkish school students and global warming: beliefs and willingness to act. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education 7(2): 121-134.
  • Kilinç, A.; Malandrakis, G.; Seymen, H.; Boyes, E.; Stanisstreet, M. (in press). Vehicles for education: Turkish students’ beliefs and views about public transport. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education.
  • Leeson, E.; Stanisstreet, M.; Boyes, E. (1997a). Primary children’s ideas about cars and the environment. Education 3-13 25(2): 25-29.
  • Leeson, E.: Stanisstreet, M.; Boyes, E. (1997b). Children’s ideas about the environmental impact of cars: A cross age study. International Journal of Environmental Studies 52(1): 89-103.
  • Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, Sultanate of Oman. (2010). Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Directorate-General of Nature Conservation. Available at: http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/om/om-nr-04-en.pdf: retrieved December 2012. Accessed 13 November 2013.
  • Ministry of Legal Affairs (2012). Royal decrees. Available at: www.mola.gov.om. Accessed 13 November 2013.
  • Nilsson, M.; Kuller, R. (2000). Travel behaviour and environmental concern. Transportation Research Part D 5: 211–234.
  • Nordlund, A.M; Garvill, J. (2003). Effects of values, problem awareness, and personal norm on willingness to reduce personal car use. Journal of Environmental Psychology 23: 339-347.
  • RAC (2004). RAC Report on Motoring 2004: Counting the cost, Cutting congestion. Feltham, RAC, UK.
  • Solana, J. (2008). Climate change and international security: paper from the High Representative and the European Commission to the European Council (S113/08). Available at: (http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/reports/99387.pdf. Accessed 7 March 2008.
  • Soylu, S. (2007). Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions. Energy Policy 35: 4088-4094.
  • Stradling, S.G.; Meadows, M.L.; Beatty, S. (2000). Helping drivers out of their cars: Integration transport policy and social psychology for sustainable change. Transport Policy 7: 207-215.
  • Stern, N. (2006). What is the Economics of Climate Change? Report to HM Government, Executive Summary. Available at: http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/4/3/Executive_Summary.pdf. Accessed 7 March 2008.
  • Tertoolen, G.; Kreveld, D.V.; Verstraten, B. (1998). Psychological resistance against attempts to reduce private car use. Transportation Research Part A 32(3): 171-181.
  • Van Exel, N.J.A.; Rietveld, P. (2010). Perceptions of public transport travel time and their effect on choice-sets among car drivers. Journal of Transport and Land Use 2(3): 75-86.
  • Van Vugt, M.; Van Lange P.A.M.; Meertens, R.M. (1996). Commuting by car or public transportation? A social dilemma analysis of travel mode judgements. European Journal of Social Psychology 26: 373-395.
  • Van Lange, P. A. M.; Van Vugt, M.; Meertens, R. M.; Ruiter, R. A. C. (1998). A social dilemma analysis of commuting preferences: the roles of social value orientation and trust. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 28: 796–820.
  • Wainwright, R. (1998). The road to reason. The Sydney Morning Herald Tuesday March 24.
  • Walton, D.; Thomas, J.A.; Dravitzki, V. (2004). Notes and comments: Commuters’ concern for the environment and knowledge of the effects of vehicle emissions. Transportation Research Part D 9: 335-340.
  • Wardman, M., Hine, J.; Stradling, S. G. (2001). Interchange and travel choice. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Central Research Unit.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
2081-8319
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-34245335-ba75-4802-ae2d-8a6dd749eb69
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.