Królestwo Polskie a zakon krzyżacki 1348–1350 – między konfliktem a współdziałaniem
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The Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order 1348–1350. Between conflict and cooperation
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From a traditional historiographic perspective the treaty of Namslau (Namyslow) made in November 1348 between Casimir the Great and Roman and Czech king Charles IV of Luxembourg constituted a breakthrough in the Polish-Teutonic relations. It included a clause according to which the Czechs were to help Poland against the Teutonic Order if the Order occupied some of Poland’s territories. It was not a declaration to carry out the anti-Teutonic action on the part of the Polish king, but one of the elements making the Treaty of Namslau quite insignificant from the very beginning, which was obvious to both parties. It did not affect the Polish-Teutonic relations, which is proved by the border agreement concluded in June 1349. Apart from the detailed delimitation, it included an important clause guaranteeing the freedom of trade for all merchants crossing the border area of the Vistula. The agreement was the first to define the border line between Greater Poland and Pomerania (which was under the Teutonic rule), and included some modifications which took place in respect to the borders. At the same time King Casimir the Great took measures to revive the trade relations with the Teutonic State. Until the end of 1349 the monarch issued three documents guaranteeing the freedom of movement of Prussian merchants (particularly the ones from Torun) to Ruthenia, where he defeated the Lithuanians at the time. The revival of trade affected also other areas, which quickly led to frictions resulting from the fact that traditional centres suffered losses because of the appearance of new routes. The evidence for this conflict was a letter of April 1350 from the authorities of Kalisz to the council of Torun. The settlement made through the mediation of the Gniezno archbishop Jaroslaw Bogoria, mentioned in a royal document of August 1350, prevented the escalation of the conflict, the element of which was the confliscation of cloth from Polish merchants which took place in Torun. Casimir the Great was interested in resolving the conflict amicably as the spring and summer of 1350 was characterized by the intensive military activity of Lithuania in Ruthenia.
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