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2013 | 43 | 46-56

Article title

Orientacja czasowo-przestrzenna uczniów ze specyficznymi trudnościami w uczeniu się


Title variants

Time-space orientation in students with specific learning difficulties

Languages of publication



Background. Time-space orientation is one of the specific coordination motor abilities. To a large extent, it is genetically conditioned by neurosensory and psychic abilities. Time-space orientation has significant impact on adaptation to rooms of various sizes, perception of obstacles, identifying space patterns, objects and distance. The purpose of this study was to compare level of time-space orientation of students with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia with their peers (without learning disabilities). Material and methods. The research sample included 40 third grade students of two primary schools (18 students from Therapeutic Primary School No. 11 and 22 students from Primary School No. 15 in Wroclaw). In order to determine the level of time-space orientation, a modified Reactive Shuttle Drill test and the research tool Smart Speed System, (similar to that described by Ljach – “run for a ball”, 2003) were used. Results. students (both boys and girls) without any learning disabilities obtained better results. They were not statistically significant. When comparing boys’ and girls’ results, those of statistical significance appeared only in the second test.


  • Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu
  • Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu
  • Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu


Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

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