Badania archeometryczne elementów rzędu końskiego – phaler, znalezionych w okolicach Starogardu Gdańskiego
Archaeometric Analyses of Ancient Harness Elements Found in the Vicinity of Starogard Gdański
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The subject of this article is the chemical and technological analysis of metal objects found in the vicinity of Starogard Gdański in northern Poland. The group consisted of ten circular bronze plates measuring 100-200 mm in diameter, in diverse state of preservation. Some of the artifacts had defects, cracks, and mechanical damages. In specialist literature this type of items are identified as ornaments of the horse – the so-called phalere. Most of such finds are dated to the V period of the Bronze Age. The objects discovered in Starogard, discussed in this paper, represent the type Stolzenburg–Skowarcz, frequently occurring in the area of Pomerania, Mecklenburg, and the Jutland and the Danish islands. For metallographic studies aiming to understand the antique blacksmith procedures, two severely damaged items were selected: CL18180 and CL18183. After removing the fragments of the rim, both artifacts were subjected to optical microscope (Neophot 2) observations of reflected light. As a result of this analysis, the process of production of bronze plates have been observed and its consecutive phases can be reconstructed. According to the microscopic observations plates were first hammered in the high temperature then axis rivet was hammered flat after being passed through holes in the pieces that are fastened together. The results of the analysis of the samples from the Starogard treasure have to a great extent complemented the current knowledge about ancient metallurgy in the Central and Northern Europe.
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