The purpose of this article is to identify the essential structural and functional basis of the concept of «the content of civil and patriotic education» in the educational thought in Belarus in the XIV-th – XVII-th centuries. The content of education is one of the central concepts of modern pedagogical theory and practice, which determines not only the structure but also the direction of the organization of educational process. The content of civil and patriotic education, as a part of the content of education in general, is formed in accordance with the general laws of development of the educational system. Using the comparative method and analysis of various interpretative approaches to the definition of the content of civil and patriotic education the key components of the considered concept, its structural components and functions are found. On the basis of the logical-historical and systemic structural analysis the historical context and the development of the content of civil and patriotic education of pedagogical thought in Belarus in the XIV-th – XVII-th centuries are determined. A dedicated system of relations, orientation and hierarchy traits and qualities of the individual citizen and patriot who made the content of civil and patriotic education in the studied period is described. The study carried out in the unity of the system, axiological and cultural approaches. The results of the study. the essential structural components of the content of civil and patriotic education are identified, its main functions from the standpoint of personal and social orientation are established. The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using the studied historical and pedagogical experience in the enrichment of the substantive aspects of the organization of civil and patriotic education of today’s youth, the revitalization of its various forms, techniques and methods on the basis of the system of traditional values. A solution to the above problems relevant to priority areas of modern educational policy in the Republic of Belarus. The findings can be the basis for the development and implementation of modern technologies and methods for improving civil and patriotic education of the youth.