Second language pragmatic ability: Individual differences according to environment
Languages of publication
The aims of this paper are to review research literature on the role that the second language (L2) and foreign language (FL) environments actually play in the development of learners’ target language (TL) pragmatic ability, and also to speculate as to the extent to which individual factors can offset the advantages that learners may have by being in the L2 context while they are learning. The paper starts by defining pragmatics and by problematizing this definition. Then, attention is given to research literature dealing with the learning of pragmatics in an L2 context compared to an FL context. Next, studies on the role of pragmatic transfer are considered, with subsequent attention given to the literature on the incidence of pragmatic transfer in FL as opposed to L2 contexts. Finally, selected studies on the role of motivation in the development of pragmatic ability are examined. In the discussion section, a number of pedagogical suggestions are offered: the inclusion of pragmatics in teacher development, the use of authentic pragmatics materials, motivating learners to be more savvy about pragmatics, and supporting learners in accepting or challenging native-speaker norms. Suggestions as to further research in the field are also offered.
- ACTFL. (2012). ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines. Alexandria, VA: American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. http://www.actfl.org/publications/guidelines-and-manuals/actfl-proficiencyguidelines-2012/english.
- Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1996). Pragmatics and language teaching: Bringing pragmatics and pedagogy together. In L. F. Bouton (Ed.), Pragmatics and language learning: Vol. 7 (pp. 21-39). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 233-262.
- Barron, A. (2003). Acquisition in interlanguage pragmatics: Learning how to do things with words in a study abroad context. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
- Beebe, L. M., & Waring, H. Z. (2002, April). The pragmatics in the interlanguage research pragmatics agenda: The case of tone. Paper presented at the Annual AAAL Conference, Salt Lake City, USA.
- Beebe, L. M., & Waring, H. Z. (2004). The lexical encoding of pragmatic tone: Adverbials as words that work. In D. Boxer & A. D. Cohen (Eds.), Study speaking to inform second language learning (pp. 228-252). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
- Bouton, L. F. (1988). A cross-cultural study of ability to interpret implicatures in English. World Englishes, 7(2), 183-196.
- Boxer, D. (2002). Applying sociolinguistics: Domains and face-to-face interaction. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
- Boxer, D., & Pickering, L. (1995). Problems in the presentation of speech acts in ELT materials: The case of complaints. ELT Journal, 49(1), 44-58.
- Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An integrative approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
- Canale, M. (1983). On some dimensions of language proficiency. In J. W. Oller, Jr. (Ed.), Issues in language testing research (pp. 333-342). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
- Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1-47.
- Cohen, A. D. (in press). Teaching and learning second language pragmatics. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning: Vol. 3. New York: Routledge.
- Cohen, A. D. (2012). Comprehensible pragmatics: Where input and output come together. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), New perspectives on individual differences in language learning and teaching (pp. 249-261). New York: Springer.
- Cohen, A. D., Olshtain, E., & Rosenstein, D. S. (1986). Advanced EFL apologies: What remains to be learned? International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 62(6), 51-74.
- Crystal, D. (1985).A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.
- Dykstra, L. (2009). Reconceptualizing the goals for foreign language learning: The role of pragmatics instruction. In V. M. Scott (Ed.), Principles and practices of the Standards in college foreign language education (pp. 86-105). Boston: Heinle.
- Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2004). Interlanguage refusals: Linguistics politeness and length of residence in the target community. Language Learning, 54(4), 587-653.
- Grabowski, K. C. (2009). Investigating the construct validity of a test designed to measure grammatical and pragmatic knowledge in the context of speaking (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, USA.
- House, J., & Kasper, G. (2000). How to remain a nonnative speaker. In C. Riemer (Ed.), Kognitive Aspekte des Lehrens und Lernens von Fremdsprachen. Festschrift für Willis J. Edmondson zum 60 [Cognitive aspects of foreign language teaching and learning. Festschrift for Willis J. Edmondson on the occasion of his 60th birthday] (pp. 101-118). Tübingen: Narr.
- Hudson, T., Detmer, E., & Brown, J. D. (1992). A framework for testing cross-cultural pragmatics. (Tech. Rep. No. 2). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.
- Hymes, D. (1972). Models of the interaction of language and social life. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication (pp. 35-71). New York: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston.
- Ishihara, N. (2011). Co-constructing pragmatic awareness: Instructional pragmatics in EFL teacher development in Japan. E-Journal of TESL, 15(2), 1-16.
- Ishihara, N., & Cohen, A. D. (2014). Teaching and learning pragmatics: Where language and culture meet. Abingdon: Routledge.
- Janicki, K. (1985). The foreigner's language: A sociolinguistic perspective. Oxford: Pergamon.
- Kasper, G. (1996). Introduction: Pragmatics in SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(2), 135-148.
- Kasper, G. (1997). Can pragmatic competence be taught? Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center. Retrieved from www.nflrc.hawaii.edu/NetWorks/Nw6/.
- Kasper, G., & Rose, K. (2001). Pragmatics in language teaching. In K. Rose & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp. 1-9). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Kasper, G., & Rose, K. R. (2002). Pragmatic development in a second language [Monograph]. Language Learning, 52(Supplement 1).
- Kecskes, I. (2003). Situation-bound utterances in L1 and L2. Berlin: Mouton.
- Kinginger, C. (2008). Language learning in study abroad: Case studies of Americans in France [Monograph]. Modern Language Journal, 92(Supplement s1, pp. 1-124).
- Koike, D. (1989). Pragmatic competence and adult L2 acquisition: Speech acts interlanguage. The Modern Language Journal, 73(3), 279-289.
- Leech, G. N. (1983). Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.
- Long, M. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 413-468). San Diego: Academic Press.
- Niezgoda, K., & Röver, C. (2001). Pragmatic and grammatical awareness: A function of the learning environment. In K. R. Rose & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp. 63-79). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Ochs, E. (1996). Linguistic resources for socializing humanity. In J. J. Gumperz & S. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 407-437). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Purpura, J. (2004). Assessing grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Rafieyan., V., Bin Abdul Majid, N., & Eng, L. S. (2013). Relationship between attitude toward target language culture instruction and pragmatic comprehension development. English Language Teaching, 6(8), 125-132.
- Rossner, R. (1990). Currents of change in English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Schauer, G. (2006). Pragmatic awareness in ESL and EFL contexts: Contrast and development. Language Learning, 56(2), 269-318.
- Schmidt, R. (1993). Consciousness, learning and interlanguage pragmatics. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 21-42). New York: Oxford University Press.
- Schumann, J. H. (1986). Research on the acculturation model for second language acquisition. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 7(5), 379-392.
- Shimizu, T. (2009). Influence of learning context on L2 pragmatic realization: A comparison between JSL and JFL learners’ compliment responses. In N. Taguchi (Ed.), Pragmatic competence (pp. 167-198). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Shively, R. L. (2011). L2 pragmatic development in study abroad: A longitudinal study of Spanish service encounters. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 1818-1835.
- Tagashira, K., Yamato, K., & Isoda, T. (2011). Japanese EFL learners’ pragmatic awareness through the looking glass of motivational profiles. JALT Journal, 33(1), 5-26.
- Taguchi, N. (2008). The role of learning environment in the development of pragmatic comprehension: A comparison of gains between EFL and ESL learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30(4), 423-452.
- Taguchi, N. (2011). Pragmatic development as a dynamic, complex process: General patterns and case histories. The Modern Language Journal, 95(4), 605-627.
- Tajeddin, Z., & Zand Moghadam, A. (2012). Interlanguage pragmatic motivation: Its construct and impact on speech act production. RELC Journal, 43(3), 353-372.
- Takahashi, S. (2001). The role of input enhancement in developing pragmatic competence. In K. R. Rose & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp. 171-199). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Takahashi, S. (2005). Pragmalinguistic awareness: Is it related to motivation and proficiency? Applied Linguistics, 26(90), 90-120.
- Takahashi, T., & Beebe, L. M. (1987). The development of pragmatic competence by Japanese learners of English. JALT Journal, 8, 131-55.
- Thomas, J. (1983). Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 91-112.
- Timpe, V. (2012). Strategic decoding of sociopragmatic assessment tasks – An exploratory think-aloud validation study. Second Language Studies, 30(2), 109-246.
- Tsutagawa, F. (2012). Future directions in pragmatics assessment. Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 43-45.
- Vásquez, C., & Sharpless, D. (2009). The role of pragmatics in the MA TESOL programs: Findings from a Nationwide Survey. TESOL Quarterly, 43(1), 5-28.
- Vellenga, H. (2004). Learning pragmatics from ESL & EFL textbooks: How likely? TESL-EJ: Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, 8(2), A-3.
- Yamagashira, H. (2001). Pragmatic transfer in Japanese ESL refusals. Bulletin Akademi Kagoshima, 31, 259-275.
Publication order reference