O MOTYWACJI I KREACJI NAZEWNICZEJ W TOPONIMII POLSKIEJ
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ON ONOMASTIC MOTIVATION AND CREATION IN POLISH TOPONYMY This article deals with considerations on the subject of onomatic motivation and creation in Polish toponymy. An attempt is made to provide a description of a synthesizing nature of kinds of motivation and means of creation encountered in Polish toponymy. The proposals presented, referring to the factographic achievements of various studies and an onomastic theory worked out earlier, spring mainly from the so-called stream of genetic interpretation of toponyms. Within the field of interests of the author are locality and terrain names, analyzed in a diachronic perspective that decidedly approaches the genesis of toponyms. It allows the discovery and recovery of their original motivational base, linguistic and extralinguistic, in contrast to typically formal structural analysis of toponyms. Genetic interpretation of toponyms leads to the discovery of encoded, original linguistic and extralinguistic meanings within them and relative to their settlement, historic-economical, social, anthropological, and natural content. As regards the genetic origin of morphological bases, toponyms from appellatives and from onyms were distinguished by H. Borek (1988: 43–51). The methodology of genetic interpretation of toponyms implies reconstructing the original motivation association between the name and the object called by that name. Giving names was one of the methods of becoming familiar with the surrounding world. From the time when the nomadic way of life was abandoned, the described conceptualization of the space surrounding the human appeared. Attempts to conceptualize ran along the axis place — people who settled that place. In connection with this apparent dichotomy, the first attempts at motivational selections were made. The place of settlement was named directly, or an intermediate model was chosen, naming the people who settled that place. For this reason, we can speak in most general terms of two motivational models, topocentric and anthropocentric.
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