Od Vídeňského kongresu k první světové válce: kontinuita versus diskontinuita dějin mezinárodních vztahů dlouhého 19. století
From the Congress of Vienna to the First World War: Continuity versus Discontinuity in the History of International Relations during the Long 19th century
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The article asserts that it is very difficult to understand the development of relations between European countries and nations from 1815 to 1914 without an appreciation of the strong but hitherto overlooked perception of diplomatic affairs by people who, regardless of their nationality, political affiliation, gender or social status, desired stability and fairness in Europe generally acknowledged as a common security space. It introduces a new thesis that the 19th century witnessed an important but as yet unknown process whereby the abuse of power by stronger states in as well as outside Europe gradually eroded the Europeans’ faith in the international security ensured by treaties and launched their search for greater security in material force. This transition from institutionalism to realism in international affairs between 1815 and 1914 was an important outcome as well as factor of the decline of the European states system during one hundred years, a process that began in the first half of the century and later resulted in a widespread security dilemma. The rise of Realpolitik, nationalism, imperialism and colonialism for example, much like a more normative approach in the peace movement, must thus be seen as the components of a complex process beyond simply the actions of the governing elites: they resulted from the people’s deep interest in and response to supranational affairs.
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