2017 | 32 | 182-249
Article title

Charakterystyka zabytków krzemiennych z wielokulturowego stanowiska Zakrzów 8, gm. Niepołomice

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Characteristics of flint artefacts found at the multi-cultural site Zakrzów no. 8, Niepołomice municipality
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The following study covers flint artefacts unearthed during the six seasons of archaeological excavations conducted by the Cracow Saltworks Museum in Wieliczka, at the multi-cultural site no. 8 in Zakrzów, Niepołomice municipality, county of Wieliczka. It is intended as the first stage of a wider analysis including the reminder of artefacts, characteristics of archaeological features, and structure of settlements in the microregion. The site was first discovered during surface work within the AZP 103- 58 rectangular area, conducted during 1983 by Antoni Jodłowski, Kazimierz Reguła and Adam Szybowicz2. The site is located at Wieliczka foothills [Pogórze Wielickie], on the south-eastern slopes of the Tropie Góry hills, rolling towards the Bogusława river – also known as the Zakrzówek stream. In the recent years, the area has been under continuous development due to robust expansion of residential areas as well as businesses opening along the national road no. 964. The undeveloped plot no. 495/2, neighbouring the road from the south, was selected for the archaeological work. Its longer axis points approximately towards the S-E direction. The excavations covered an area reaching 60 m in length and 15 m in width. In total, the area of 8 ares was explored, which resulted in the identification of over 100 features, mostly from the Neolithic period. Found underneath the humus layer were deposits with inclusions of historical materials, filling a ground depression between two local humps invisible from the surface. The bottom of the excavated ditch featured formations whose genesis is likely the result of aqueous environment. This allows us to suppose that there was at least a periodically active spring in this region. Further evidence supporting this hypothesis comes from the layout of identified archaeological features, whose placement avoids the likely area of the watercourse. The depression was probably filled gradually, as suggested by the depth-varying numbers and provenance of unearthed artefacts. The substrate consists of hard sandy clay formations, with multiple ferrous inclusions. A large percentage of the unearthed ceramics consists of so-called ‘sandy’ ceramics, which may suggest the spring being used as the source of brine, or perhaps simply of water used in the production of such vessels. This topic will be elaborated upon in the further stages of the study. The site is multi-cultural in its character. Only few among the archaeological finds can be attributed to the final stages of the Palaeolithic and the Mesolithic periods. The core of the finds consists of Neolithic artefacts, present both in the identified deposit strata and within the archaeological features. A small group of artefacts and features is attributable to the Linear Pottery Culture of the Zofipole stage (2nd half of the 6th millennium BCE), with much more numerous finds from the late stages of the Pleszów-Modlnica group (2nd half of the 5th millennium BCE) and the Wyciąże-Złotniki group (1st half of the 4th millennium BCE) of the Lengyel-Polgár circle. Also identified were various numbers of artefacts from the Lusatian Culture, Tyniec group, Przeworsk Culture, and materials dating from the Medieval period up until the modern times, including a rifleman’s strongpoint from 1914. Due to the particulars of the site stratigraphy, the majority of artefacts comes from a secondary fill, which robs them of some cultural and chronological contexts. Consequently, the main part of the analysis of flint material will be focusing on artefacts from anthropogenic features in which culturally homogeneous ceramics were found. The finds were associated with three horizons: Linear Pottery Culture, and Pleszów-Modlnica group and Wyciąże-Złotniki group of the Lengyel-Polgár circle (Table no. I).
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