PL EN


2015 | XCVII | 107-144
Article title

Kontraktualizm versus federalizm. Argument konstytucyjnoprawny Johna Caldwella Calhouna w okresie kryzysu nullifikacyjnego

Authors
Content
Title variants
EN
Contractarianism versus federalism.John C. Calhoun’s constitutional arguments during Nullification Crisis
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
PL
Autor przedstawia główne argumenty konstytucyjne na rzecz uprawnień stanowych formułowane przez Johna Caldwella Calhouna – amerykańskiego polityka i teoretyka polityki – podczas kryzysu nullifikacyjnego, który wzmógł antagonizmy pomiędzy Karoliną Południową i rządem federalnym. Kryzys miał miejsce po tym, jak Karolina Południowa zadeklarowała, że taryfy celne z lat 1828 i 1832 (tzw. taryfa odrazy) były niekonstytucyjne i dlatego zostały unieważnione przez suwerenny stan. Według autora J.C. Calhoun, odrzucający filozofię centralizacji prezentowaną przez Sąd Najwyższy i administrację prezydencką, zaproponował teorię nullifikacji, która opierała się na argumentach Thomasa Jeffersona i Jamesa Madisona, zawartych w Rezolucjach Kentucky i Wirginii z 1798 roku. Autor dowodzi, że filozofia prawa i polityki J.C. Calhouna zalicza się do tradycji południowoatlantyckiego agrarnego republikanizmu, opartego na zdecentralizowanym porządku moralnym i religijnym wywodzonym z idei subsydiarności i Stanów Zjednoczonych jako unii suwerennych stanów.
EN
TThe Author presents main constitutional arguments for states’ rights formulated by John Caldwell Calhoun – American politician and political theorist – during the Nullification Crisis, which involved a confrontation between South Carolina and the federal government. The crisis ensued after South Carolina declared that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 (Tariff of Abominations) were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of the state. For the Author J.C. Calhoun rejecting the centralization philosophy of Supreme Court and presidential administration proposed the theory of nullification based on Jefferson’s and Madison’s arguments included in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798. The Author argues, that J.C. Calhoun’s political and law philosophy represents of the South Atlantic tradition of agrarian republicanism relied on a decentralized moral and religious order based on the idea of subsidiarity and Unites States as the Union of sovereign and free states.
Year
Volume
Pages
107-144
Physical description
Dates
published
2015
Contributors
  • Katedra Doktryn Polityczno-Prawnych Wydział Prawa i Administracji, Uniwersytet Łódzki, ttulejski@tlen.pl
References
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Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
0081-6841
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-376f3657-2acb-466b-a61e-c48f3ffe0df2
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