Organizacja i działalność policji politycznej na Pomorzu w okresie sierpień 1920–kwiecień 1923
The organization and activity of political police in Pomerania in the period between August 1920 and April 1923
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The first decisions concerning the organization of political police in Pomerania took place in the summer of 1920. On the basis of Instruction Manual for Branches of Department IV-D of August 1920 a pillar of political police was created. Department IV-D KG PP was created in Warsaw, and in the districts of Branch of Department IV-D the smallest unit constituted Agencies of Department IV-D. The institution was set up to fight espionage, communism and anti-state actions. Its existence and work were kept secret. In general matters Branches of Department IV-D were subordinated to district orders of State Police, while within the range of performed functions they received orders directly from Department IV-D in Warsaw and local administrative or court authorities. On 17 September 1920 Additional Instruction Manual to Regulations on the Organization of Investigative Bureaux and the Organization of the Main Headquarters of State Police appeared. It extended executive regulations from August 1920. The structure of Department IV-D in Warsaw, which constituted a special unit of the Main Headquarters of State Police, was defined. Officers of political police were chosen from policemen employed in investigative bodies. This pillar of the police was supposed to be elitist. Thus the most gifted policemen with the best professional education were selected to work in secret police. Matters concerning ethnic minorities were particularly important in the activity of political police. Hence, on 23 September 1922 in accordance with a directive of the Chief of Police in Warsaw, the Headquarters for German Aff airs was created in Toruń, the head of which was Mieczysław Lissowski. The headquarters included six voivodeships (the Pomeranian, Łódż, Poznań, Silesian and Warsaw viovodeships). Its main task was to collect and analyze materials and to write reports concerning the social-political situation of the German minority. Officers’ experience in working in counter-intelligence was consequent upon their past activity in services of this kind in the countries of Poland’s partitioners. Among the Pomeranian staff of political police there were officers who had been employed in Polish military and independence organizations, in investigative offices, detectives’ agencies, police or other bodies guarding public order and security. In the first years it was this group that constituted the core of secret police. Another issue which political police had to struggle with throughout all the interwar period was a shortage of full-time positions to run an effective action to trace signs of anti-state activities. In 1923 the first thorough reorganization of the political pillar of the civil security service took place. It was conducted under pressure of the state administration, which insisted on full subordination of political police in voivodeships and poviats (counties). On 26 April 1923 there appeared regulations concerning a new police formation called Słuzba Informacyjna (Information Service). On the basis of those regulations Branches of Department IV-D were converted into Information Units, which became part of public security departments of offices of the voivode. Previous Agencies of Department IV-D were assigned to the administrative offices of a powiat (county) called starostwo as Agencies of Information Department of the Voivodeship. Consequently, bodies of political police were removed from intelligence activities. The corps of Information Service consisted of officers of the former pillar IV-D.
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