This article provides a historical overview of aesthetics as a science, which showed that methodological problems of aesthetic education of the younger generation in modern society has an important place in philosophy, psychology, pedagogy, art, culture and others. The development of aesthetics is a direct reflection of the evolution of society. Studying the genesis, functioning in a society of aesthetic theories and beliefs, the history of aesthetics gives the necessary background for understanding the theoretical problems of aesthetic education. The dialectical method of cognition is known, it involves the unity of historical and theoretical approaches to the analysis of any phenomenon, so the problem of aesthetic education research carried out in the context of the evolution of the main aesthetic doctrines. Methodological problems of aesthetic education of the younger generation in modern society are investigated. Analysis of the literature confirms that aesthetic education depends, first, on the social and cultural environment, and secondly, is determined by psychophysiological and general development of the child. Therefore, aesthetic education is determined by natural talent, is spontaneously formed in a socio-cultural and educational environment; it determines life, artistic and aesthetic experience and it is updated through targeted educational influence. Thus, the conceptual basis of modern foreign research is orientation on upbringing of an individual with a stable aesthetic worldview based on human values and priorities. On the other hand, unbiased analysis shows that the views of scientists on this important issue are ambiguous and constitute a mosaic picture on the level of theoretical and empirical considerations and need further research. The study used the following methods: analysis of philosophical, historical, art, psychological and educational literature of the study; comparison, generalization and systematization of scientific-theoretical information on the problem of aesthetic education of the individual.