2015 | 5(36) | 221-240
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Funkcjonalistyczna koncepcja teorii w ujęciu Talcotta Parsonsa

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The Functionalist Conception of Theory in the Formulation of Talcott Parsons
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One of the most visible features of contemporary political science, seen also in other social sciences are theoretical problems. They are nothing in this group of scietific disciplines. But new is their form. In second half of 20th century clasical scientific orientations as functionalism, structuralism, institutionalism, behaviouralism or system theory became the subject of critique of many social scientists. But in last decade of that century appeared renewed interest in those orientations of social thought. This article contains an analysis of Talcott Parsons view on social theory. The American sociologist during almost fifty years of scientific activity tried to build that, what he called general social theory. His concept of theory is very specific. Parsons understood it as a collection of logically interdependent generalized concepts of empirical sense. That means that theory is a conceptual outline. The bases of theory are analitycally understood facts, which have sense only in the frames of reference including: goals, means, resources, conditions, social norms, time and situation. Theory is for him a hierarchical category. It includes scientific results of different levels of generality. On the most general level he situated general theory. On next we have motivation theory. On third are comparative analyses of social structure. Fourth consists of particular theories. On the last level of theoretical systematization are relations between theory an research procedures.
  • Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
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