The paper aims at analysing the relation between the model of social policy implemented in Poland after 1989 and the scale and structure of migration processes. The statistical data analysed in the paper show the impact of the deficit of good jobs, weakening protection of workers' rights, and low levels of social security in Poland on the post-accession emigration of Poles. The paper has tried to challenge the strategy implemented in Poland after 2004, which is based on compensating for the effects of emigration of young and well-educated Poles with the influx of foreign workers. It has been also emphasized that social policy instruments towards immigration and immigrants tend to be one-sided, as they focus on the labour market needs and do not provide enough support for the process of adaptation and integration of immigrants in Poland. Moreover, a verification of the assumptions of the governmental document "Migration policy of Poland” (2012) has been suggested, i.e. taking into account the negative effects of the post-accession economic emigration and recognizing the issue of contemporary Polish emigration as an important area of Poland’s migration policy. Finally, the paper has outlined the role of social policy in stimulating migration processes in accordance with the principle of protection of native human capital, the needs of the economy, and the Polish raison d'etat. It has also identified spheres of social policy development which are necessary to achieve this objective.