2011 | 15 | 49-63
Article title

Results of the preliminary analysis of Lower Egyptian settlement discovered on the Central Kom in Tell el-Farkha

Selected contents from this journal
Title variants
Languages of publication
Excavations conducted on the Central Kom in Tell el-Farkha in seasons 2008 and 2009 have brought the evidence of part of the oldest settlement structures in this site – there were furrows, postholes and pits, dated at Lower Egyptian culture. After the preliminary analysis of the discovered structures it was possible to distinguish separated settlement zones as well as the sequence of changes in the architecture. The comparison of the data from Tell el-Farkha with the settlements in Palestine showed similarity (rectangular shape of structures, space planning) between settlements of Lower Egyptian culture and those of Chalcolithic Ghassul-Beersheva culture. The complex arrangements of Lower Egyptian structures in Tell el-Farkha suggest a high level of space planning as well as developed social organization and make the long established tendency to contrast egalitarian and simple Lower Egyptian societies with Naqadian culture questionable.
Physical description
  • Ben-Shlomo D. and Garfinkel Y. 2009. Sha’ar Hagolan and the new insights on near eastern proto-historic urban concepts. OJA 28/2, 189-209.
  • Braun E. 1989a. The problem of the ‘apsidal’ house: new aspects of Early Bronze I domestic architecture in Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon. PEQ 121, 2-25.
  • Braun E. 1989b. The transition from the Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Northern Israel and Jordan: is there a missing link? In P. Miroschedji (ed.), 7-28.
  • Brink E., van den and Levy T. (eds) 2002. Egypt and The Levant. Interrelations from the 4th through the early 3rd millennium B.C.E. London.
  • Chłodnicki M. and Ciałowicz K. M. 2010. Tell el-Farkha. Preliminary Report, 2007. PAM 19 (Reports 2007), 161-178.
  • Commenge C. and Alon D. 2002. Competitive involution and expanded horizons: exploring the nature of interaction between northern Negev and Lower Egypt (c. 4500-3600 BCE). In E. van den Brink and T. Levy (eds), 139-153.
  • Cutting M. 2006. More than one way to study a building: approaches to prehistoric household and settlement space. OJA 25/3, 225-246.
  • Eisenberg E. 1989. Chalcolithic and Early Bronze I occupations at Tel Teo. In P. Miroschedji (ed.), 29-40.
  • Faltings D. 2002. The chronological frame and social structure of Buto in the fourth millenium BCE. In E. van den Brink and T. Levy (eds), 165-170.
  • Guyot F. 2002. The origins of the ‘Naqadan Expansion’ and the interregional exchange mechanisms between Lower Nubia, Upper and Lower Egypt, the South Levant and North Syria during the first half of the 4th millennium BC. In B. Midant-Rynes and Y. Tristant (eds), 707-740.
  • Hartung U. 2004. Rescue excavations in the Predynastic settlement of Maadi. In S. Hendrickx et al., 337-356.
  • Hendrickx S., Friedman R. F., Ciałowicz K. M. and Chłodnicki M. (eds) 2004. Egypt at its origins. Studies in memory of Barbara Adams. Proceedings of the International Conference Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt. Kraków, 28th August – 1st September 2002. (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138). Leuven, Paris, Dudley.
  • Hennessy J. B. 1990. Preliminary report on a first season of excavations at Teleilat Ghassul. Levant 22, 1-24.
  • Hoffman M. 1980. A rectangular Amratian house from Hierakonpolis and its significance for predynastic research. JNES 39/2, 119-137.
  • Joffe A. H. 1993. Settlement and Society in the Early Bronze Age I and II, Southern Levant. Complementarity and Contradiction in a Small-scaleComplex Society. (Monographs in Mediterranean Archaeology 4). Sheffield.
  • Köhler Ch. 2008. The interaction between and the roles of Upper and Lower Egypt in the formation of the Egyptian state. Another review. In B. Midant-Rynes and Y. Tristant (eds) with the collaboration of J. Rowland and S. Hendrickx, Egypt at its origins 2: Proceedings of the International Conference Origin of the state. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt, Toulouse (France), 5th-8th September 2005. (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 172), 515-542. Leuven, Paris, Dudley.
  • Koeppel 1940. Teleilat Ghassul 2. Rome.
  • Levy T. E. 1986. The Chalcolithic period. Archaeological sources for the history of Palestine. BiblArch 49/2, 82-108.
  • Levy T. E. (ed.) 1987. Shiqmim 1. Studies concerning Chalcolithic societies in the northern Negev Desert, Israel (1982-1984). (BAR-IS 356). Oxford.
  • Mallon A., Koeppel R. and Neuville R. 1934. Teleilat Ghassul 1. Rome.
  • Mączyńska A. 2008. Some remarks on Egyptian-Southern Levantine interrelations in the first half of the 4th millennium BC. In S. Hendrickx et al., 761-779.
  • Midant-Reynes B. and Buchez N. (eds) 2002. Adaïma. Economie et habitat. Cairo.
  • Miroschedji P. (ed.) 1989. L’Urbanisation de la Palestine a l’âge du Bronze ancien. Bilan et perspectives des recherches actuelles. (BAR-IS 527). Oxford.
  • Perrott J. F. A. 1955. Excavations at Tell Abu Matar, near Beersheba. IEJ 5, 1-3.
  • Rizkana I. and Seeher J. 1989. Maadi 3. The non-lithic small finds and the structural remains of the predynastic settlement. Mainz.
  • Way T., von der 1997. Tell el-Fara’in, Buto 1. Mainz.
  • Wengrow D. 2006. The Archaeology of Early Egypt. Social transformations in North-East Africa, 10,000 to 2,650 BC. Cambridge.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.