Gospodarstwo rolne jako przedmiot zapisu windykacyjnego – wybrane problemy
Agricultural farm as an item of the “specific bequest” (zapis windykacyjny) – selected issues
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The article discusses a wide range of issues concerning the new legal institution introduced to the Polish legal system by the bill to amend the Polish Civil Code –i.e. “specific bequest”. The bill introduced a specific bequest alongside the current ordinary bequest. The item in question – which could take the form of personalty, an alienable property right, an enterprise or agricultural farm, or usufruct or a servitude– will go to the named legatee as soon as the estate enters probate. Thanks to this new institution testator will be able to assign a specific item of his property to a specific person (heir or not). For the agricultural law doctrine the most important issue concerning the institution of specific bequest is the fact that its item can be “agricultural farm”. In this way the notion of “agricultural farm” – central institution of rural law – has been introduced to the general provisions of inheritance law and, therefore, its importance has been strongly valorized. On the other hand, however, new regulations create a great number of serious doubts and problems which can easily put in question its practical importance. These problems have been divided in the paper in two basic groups. The first group concerns so–called “technical” problems. The most important one is the question of describing the agricultural farm in the notarial will, taking into account the doctrinal postulate of its maximal specification and substantiation as well as unification of descriptions in will and in the court’s ruling confirming the rights to the item of specific bequest. This problem should be analyzed with respect to the social – economic fact that agricultural farm only very rarely is the item of the property right. Usually, it is complicated construction consisting of different items and rights which do not have to be owned by the farmer. The second group of problems examined in the article was called “political issues”. In this part of paper Author tries to prove that the institution of specific bequest does not ensure satisfactory level of protection for the agricultural farm. Firstly, this legal instrument enables unqualified heirs access to the farm. Secondly, it can provoke the unreasonable partition of the farm. Moreover, it can also occur dangerous to the economic basis of the farm, regarding the fact that legatees are severally liable for heritable debts and can be also liable to certain statutory heirs. With respect to above–mentioned arguments, the strong need of the suitable legal institution – which would facilitate the generational changes in the agricultural farms – is to be stressed.
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