2015 | 1(9)/2015 Duchowość jako kategoria egzystencji i transcendencji w starości | 19-36
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Dziewiąta faza w cyklu życia – propozycja rozszerzenia teorii psychospołecznego rozwoju E. H. Eriksona

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In the article, I analyze Erik H. Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, including the ninth stage proposed by J. M. Erikson. I present the author’s understanding of the ninth stage. I try to prove that integrity versus despair is still the crisis of the last stage of life – i.e. with the addition of a ninth stage. Th e crisis of stage eight takes place in the continuum of involvement – resignation. Th e term involvement I understand as the choice of one’s own way of life in the world, in view of a personal development oriented towards the realization of universal values, in accordance with the ethical dimension of the social ethos, with a sense of acceptance of the changes that are the result of the human aging process. Resignation I understand as the second pole dynamizing the confl ict of stage eight, which manifests itself in the fact that no new activities are undertaken or old ones continued by an individual out of the conviction that it is senseless to undertake any activities for his/her own development. Th is crisis is the confrontation with one’s own old age within the dimensions soma, psyche and ethos, when the changes caused by the aging process and the change in the conditions of activity render the previous way of life in the world inadequate and require involvement in form of the search for a new place for oneself. Th e strength that can be engendered by the struggle of the elderly between involvement and resignation is courage. In this acquisition of courage, the elderly should be supported by the geragogy of courage, which I associate with critical gerontology. Society needs the courage of the elderly and their involvement in the ethical preservation of the world.
  • Instytut Pedagogiki, Uniwersytet Szczeciński
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