The capital structure of Polish small and medium-sized enterprises and its impact on their competitiveness
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The article discusses the problem of the relationship between the capital structure and the level of competitiveness of SMEs in Poland. The objective of the article is to determine the impact capital structure has on the level of competitiveness of SMEs in Poland. The capital structure of SMEs is dominated by internal funds. Among external sources of financing, bank loans and leasing are predominant. This structure is consistent with the relevant theoretical models. The study shows no significant differences in the financing of current operations, innovation, and competitiveness improvement. The lack of relationship indicates that the capital structure of SMEs has little impact on their competitiveness. The results of the study demonstrate that all external sources of financing improve the competitiveness of SMEs, but the strength of their impact is different. The strongest impact is shown for venture capital, guarantees, and leasing; the weakest – for bank loans and the issuance of shares and bonds. A significant factor is the degree of alignment of a particular financing source with the special needs of SMEs. This significant relationship is demonstrated for all the sources most commonly used by SMEs
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