ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ЗАСАДИ ФОРМУВАННЯ ПРОСОЦІАЛЬНОЇ ПОВЕДІНКИ УЧНІВ ЗАГАЛЬНООСВІТНІХ НАВЧАЛЬНИХ ЗАКЛАДІВ
The theoretical bases of formation of prosocial behavior schoolchildren of secondary educational institutions
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The article deals with the theoretical approaches to the problem of formation of prosocial behavior of schoolchildren of modern educational institutions. The definitive analysis of the concept of «prosocial behavior» is made, the most common concepts, the dominant approaches and views on the solution to this problem both in foreign and in domestic psychological and educational sources are outlined. Special attention is paid to the analysis of two theoretical versions of prosocial behavior: the theory of social exchange (social exchange theory) and the theory of social norms (social norms theory). In the works of some scientists prosocial behavior is characterized as the behavior and actions of the individual, aimed at the benefit of themselves and other people, that is on the achievement of personal and social well-being. At the same time it emphasizes the importance of the phenomenon of charity and altruism, because it is believed that prosocial behavior is different from social, it is a great altruistic load. It also accounts for the dependence of prosocial behavior with a person’s values. In other words, life values, representing the system of internal standards, relations to reality, guide and encourage the person to implement the relevant strategies of interaction with the world, as well as determine the purpose and meaning of life. Prosocial behavior is correlated with the level of self-actualization, because the motives and strategies for the self-realization have different social significance and are manifested in the service of human values. Therefore, we can say that most of the foreign and domestic researchers and social psychologists characterize prosocial behavior as positive, constructive, socially desirable and socially useful and as a direct (diametrically) the opposite of anti-social behavior. The conclusion is that prosocial behavior should be considered as a system of actions and deeds of a person due to the conscious adoption of socially important norms and values, the ability to constructively resolve interpersonal and group contradiction, impossibility risky ways presubject interactions, ability to self-realization in various kinds of social activities. Summarizing the above, we determine the formation of prosocial behavior in preventive educational environment as a holistic process aimed at ensuring the necessary and sufficient organizational and pedagogical conditions for the students conscious interiorization of socially significant norms and values.
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