2013 | 1(5) | 233-252
Article title

Paradoks gracza, czyli co motywuje graczy do korzystania z gier online

Selected contents from this journal
Title variants
Languages of publication
The article presents the psychological evolution of online players’ motivation: from conscious fun to the ‘production’ of game achievements, which is automated, dominated by a goal and lacks the player’s involvement. Players’ paradoxical behaviour and the game features leading to such behaviour are discussed. This paradox is analyzed in the light of taxonomic research and psychological motivation theories explaining player activity. The role of the overjustification effect (intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation) and psychological entrapment is discussed in detail. Game features fostering paradoxical behaviour are also indicated: (1) treating playing instrumentally, (2) compulsion to engage in certain activities, (3) reinforcing egoistic and stereotypical behaviour. Additionally, reward distribution which supports intrinsic motivation is proposed.
Physical description
Document type
  • Katarzyna Skok, Uniwersytet w Białymstoku, Wydział Pedagogiki i Psychologii, Zakład Psychologii Ogólnej i Klinicznej, ul. Świerkowa 20, 15-328 Białystok, Poland,
  • Katarzyna Skok, Uniwersytet w Białymstoku, Wydział Pedagogiki i Psychologii, Zakład Psychologii Ogólnej i Klinicznej, ul. Świerkowa 20, 15-328 Białystok, Poland
  • Apter, M.J., Fontana, D., Murgatroyd, S.J. (1985). Reversal theory: Applications and developments. Cardiff: University College Cardiff Press i New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Axelrod, R. (1980). More Effective Choice in the Prisoner’s Dilemma. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 24, 379–403.
  • Bartle, R. (1996). Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who suit MUDs. Online: <>. Data dostępu: 30 grudnia 2012.
  • Brockner, J., Rubin, J. Z. (1985). Entrapment in escalating conflicts: A social psychological analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • Choi, D., Kim, J. (2004). Why people continue to play online games: In search of critical design factors to increase customers loyalty to online contents. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 7, 11–24.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2005). Przepływ. Psychologia optymalnego doświadczenia (tłum. M. Wajda-Kacmajor). Taszów: Biblioteka Moderatora.
  • Deci, E.L., Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
  • Frankl, V. (2012). Człowiek w poszukiwaniu sensu (tłum. A. Wolnicka). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Czarna Owca.
  • Griffiths, M. (2010). Online video gaming: what should educational psychologists know? Educational Psychology in Practice, 26, 35–40.
  • Grohol J. M. (1997). What's normal? How much is too much when spending time online? Online: <>. Data dostępu: 20 stycznia 2014.
  • Harris, A.C., Madden, G.C. (2002). Delay Discounting and Performance on the Prisoner's Dilemma Game. The Psychological Record, 52, 429–440.
  • Higgins, E.T. (1997). Beyond Pleasure and Pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280–1300.
  • Kaliszewska, K. (2007). Nadmierne uzywanie Internetu. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.
  • Lepper, M.R., Greene, D., Nisbett, R.E. (1973). Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic rewards: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28(1), 129–137.
  • Radoff, J. (2011). Game Player Motivations. Online: <>. Data dostępu: 30 grudnia 2012.
  • Rosenfield, D., Folger, R., Adelman, H.F. (1980). When rewards reflect competence: A qualification of the overjustification effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(3), 368–376.
  • Skok, K. (2011). Rola przepływu w mechanizmie uzależnienia od gier online. (Nieopublikowana praca doktorska). Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warszawa.
  • Smith W.K., Lewis M.W. (2011). Toward a theory of paradox: a dynamic equilibrium model of organizing. Academy of Management Review, 36(2), 381–403.
  • Walther, J. B. (1999). Communication addiction disorder: Concern over media, behavior and effects. Online: <>. Data dostępu: 20 stycznia 2014.
  • Wan, C., Chiou, W. (2007). The motivations of adolescents who are addicted to online games: a cognitive perspective. Adolescence, 42, 179–197.
  • Weinstein, A.M. (2010). Computer and video game addiction – A comparison between game users and non-game users. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36, 268–276.
  • Webster, J., Ho, H. (1997). Audience engagement in multi-media presentations. ACM SIGMIS Database, 28, 63–77.
  • Yee, N. (2007). Motivations of Play in Online Games. Journal of CyberPsychology and Behavior, 9, 772–775.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.