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2015 | 25 | 4 | 69-90
Article title

Toward New Focus on Retributive Justice. Reflections on Background of Passive Subject of Crime

Title variants
PL
Nowe spojrzenie na sprawiedliwość retrybutywną. Rozważania na tle koncepcji biernego podmiotu przestępstwa
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
PL
W artykule podjęto próbę nowego spojrzenia na retrybutywizm. Punkt wyjścia dla prezentowanej idei stanowi koncepcja biernego podmiotu przestępstwa. Wydaje się bowiem, że retrybutywizm wobec wyczerpania środków do jego argumentacji wymaga nowej podbudowy. Stąd postuluje się zestawienie teorii retrybutywnego karania z koncepcją podkreślającą znaczenie ofiary przestępstwa w jej materialnoprawnym ujęciu. Prawo karne potrzebuje uzasadnienia dla publicznej reakcji, którą stanowi kara z uwzględnieniem pomiotu biernego, tj. tego, czyje dobra prawne, będące przedmiotem ochrony norm prawa karnego materialnego, zostały bezpośrednio naruszone lub zagrożone przez przestępstwo. To ofiara cierpi wskutek przestępstwa i dlatego też wymaga szczególnego podejścia, zwłaszcza ze strony odpowiednich organów państwowych. Jednocześnie jest ona podmiotem, który może posiadać istotne znaczenie w kontekście ustalenia tego, na co sprawca zasługuje, także w perspektywie sądowego wymiaru kary. Ofiara przestępstwa jest więc istotnym czynnikiem, abstrahując nawet od kompensacyjnej funkcji prawa karnego. Kluczowe miejsce w tym kontekście zajmuje koncepcja biernego podmiotu przestępstwa, która może zostać zestawiona spójnie z retrybutywizmem. Nie jest ona bowiem względem niego teorią sprzeczną, a wręcz przeciwnie, w wielu aspektach pozostaje z nią zbieżna i stanowi istotne dopełnienie, niejednokrotnie kluczowe dla uzasadnienia sensu retrybutywnego karania.
This paper supports the attempt undertaken by its author to take a fresh look at criminal justice in relation to retributivism and conceptual framework of a passive subject of a crime is the starting point for any related consideration, for it seems that retributivism needs new grounds when measures of argument strength are no longer feasible. Therefore, it is postulated to juxtapose the theory of retributive punishment with a victim of a crime in its substantive perspective. However, the criminal law requires reasonable grounds for public response being punishment, not losing sight of a subject whose legal goods are protected by norms of the criminal law but have been directly infringed or imperilled by an offence. After all, it is a victim who suffers in effect of an offence, thus requiring a special approach, especially on the part of relevant public authorities. At the same time, a victim is a subject who may be significant in the context of determination of what an offender deserves, and therefore in the perspective of judicial punishment, too. So, a victim is an important factor, even if we disregard the compensation function of the criminal law. The conceptual framework of a passive subject of a crime, that may be consistently juxtaposed with retributivism, has been specifically highlighted in this paper. This conceptual framework is not contradictory to retributivism, on the contrary, in many respects it is consistent with retributivism and serves the grounds for retributive punishment.
Contributors
  • Department of Criminal Procedure, Faculty of Law, Canon Law and Administration of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, marek.smarzewski@wp.pl
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Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-470c84d5-a43e-457a-9c52-120e1ecb20f5
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