Uniwersalność struktury wartości: koncepcja Shaloma H. Schwartza
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The universal character of the structure of values: Shalom H. Schwartz conception
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The article presents the Israeli researcher Shalom H. Schwartz’s conception of a universal structure of values, which is the most significant theory of values worked out in recent years. Schwartz convincingly tested it in cross-cultural studies carried out in several dozen countries belonging to all the most important cultural circles. According to Schwartz the contents of human values - and more precisely: the contents of rather general categories of values and relations between categories - are universal. The cause of their universal character is the uniformity of human condition determined by biological needs and social living conditions of individuals and societies. Schwartz argues that values may be classified according to the interests they serve. Realization of values may serve the interests of an individual, or a group, or both at the same time. This criterion led to distinguishing 10 universal categories of values: 1. directing oneself, 2. stimulation, 3. hedonism, 4. achievements, 5. power, 6. security, 7. adjustment, 8. tradition, 9. kindness, 10. universalism. The third criterion for classification of values is the rule of conflicts and agreement between them. Values are in conflict if they may not be realized at the same time, and in agreement - if this is possible. The last criterion allows distinguishing four meta-categories of values: consolidation of the I - transgressing the I - and being open to changes - conservatism. In the article also studies are described that show systematic, foreseeable on the basis of Schwartz’s theory, connections between values, behaviours and attitudes. Also some psychometric properties are given of the English version of the tool Schwartz uses for studies of values (Schwartz Value Inventory, SVI). They were assessed by means of analysis of structural equations.
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