Enlightenment activity of the Kharkiv medical and natural scientists: historical and pedagogical aspect
In the article the enlightenment activity of the Kharkiv medical and natural scientists in the second half of the 19-th – early 20-th centuries has been analyzed. The research methods have been mentioned: specifically retrieval, historical and comparative, historical and retrospective, chronological, systemic. The author of the article has proved that the public activity for the organization of extracurricular education among different segments of the population and scientific and promotional work among the students and intellectuals was the content of the enlightenment activity of medical scientists and naturalists of Kharkiv University in the second half of the 19-th – early 20-th centuries. The article outlines the purpose of the enlightenment activity: reorganization of the society, organization of public education and humanistic education of the youth. It has been noted that the rationalism and humanism were the basic features of the enlightenment activity. The article highlights the basic directions of the enlightenment activity of the representatives of higher medical and pharmaceutical school: organization and participation in the network of extracurricular educational institutions for people and in scientific societies, holding public lectures (from the sphere of science and health care); popularization of scientific knowledge due to the participating in the congresses of doctors and naturalists. The means of public training and education have been outlined: the magic lantern (device for projecting images); transparencies; drawings and paintings, equipment for demonstration of experiments. It has been accented that the participation of Kharkiv medical scientists and naturalists in the scientific congresses significantly contributed to raising of the cultural level of educated population, created a public demand for medical and natural knowledge. The experience of the Kharkiv scientists’ enlightenment activity during the imperial period can be considered as a model for modern intelligentsia and regarded as the impulse to formation of the specialists’ value orientations. For the research perspective, we see further wide study of the social and enlightenment activity of the leading representatives of medical and pharmaceutical education during the 19-th and 20-th centuries.
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