2020 | 3(238) | 5-30
Article title

Demokratyczny elityzm: geneza i podstawy paradygmatu

Title variants
Democratic Elitism: Genesis and Paradigm’s Basis
Languages of publication
Artykuł prezentuje podstawy współczesnej teorii elit, znanej jako demokratyczny elityzm. Rozpoczyna się od zarysu dyskusji nad elitami w demokracjach w latach sześćdziesiątych i siedemdziesiątych ubiegłego wieku, dającej początki dzisiejszego ujęcia. Następnie zarysowane są zmiany makrospołeczne i makropolityczne w ostatnich dekadach, w tym zmiany w systemach partyjnych, związane silnie z globalizacją i określane ogólnym mianem „nowej polityki”. W zasadniczej części uwaga skupia się na twierdzeniach paradygmatu demokratycznego elityzmu, związanych z relacjami wewnątrz elit i koncepcją „konfiguracji elit” Johna Higleya, która stanowi ważne narzędzie analityczne i w istotny sposób wiąże się z cechami reżimów politycznych i efektywnością demokracji. W zakończeniu podkreślone jest ogólne przesłanie paradygmatu, nakazujące brać pod uwagę zmienne opisujące elity, w przeciwnym bowiem razie wyjaśnienia wynikające z badań będą ignorowały ważne determinanty i w efekcie będą niekompletne.
The article presents the major tenets of the contemporary theory of elites, known as democratic elitism. First, it outlines the discussion on elites in democracies in the 1960. and the 1970., which commenced a contemporary approach in elite studies. Next, a concise summary of „a new politics”, i.e. macrosocial and macropolitical changes triggered off by globalization and transformations within party systems, is presented. The main part of the article focuses on the relations within elites and the John Higley’s concept of “configuration of elites”, which makes up an important analytical tool and is considered a major factor co-determining the shape of political regimes and democratic performance. In the conclusions, the crucial message of the democratic elite paradigm is articulated: elite variables have to be included in academic research, otherwise explanations would miss major determinants and turn out incomplete.
Physical description
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