Dzieje budowy i architektura zamku w Papowie Biskupim na ziemi chełmińskiej w świetle ostatnich badań
Construction Stages and Architecture of the Papowo Biskupie Castle in the Chełmno Region in the Light of the Latest Research
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Papowo Biskupie is a village approximately halfway between Toruń and Chełmno. The first mention of it dates back to 1222. A Teutonic Commnadry was founded there in ca. 1278-84. This is the period many scholars associate with the beginning of the castle’s construction. The works continued into the 14th century, yielding a stronghold consisting of a convent house (high castle) and the bailey. The castle was located on an isthmus between lakes and there was a road connecting Chełmża and Chełmno nearby. The castle stands out for the fact that almost entirely defensive wall building stone was used for its construction. Brick was solely applied for window and door jambs., vaults, and the crowning wall parts containing galleries. The convent house’s layout approximated a square of a 42-m-long side and had four wings. The main, northern one, housed a chapel and refectory on the 1st floor. The other wings housed dormitories and Commander’s rooms; the western one may have contained storage rooms connected with the kitchen located on the wing’s first floor. The interiors featured cross vaulting, while some cellars also contained tunnel vaults. In the aftermath of the recent archaeological and architectural research, many previous ideas on the castle’s appearance have been verified. According to the latest ascertainment, the Convent House was not surrounded by the parcham, a belt of hardened ground, and was not separated from the bailey with a moat. The fortified wall was raised only from the side of the bailey where a ramp entrance to the castle was featured. The architectural investigation conducted in the course of the excavations allowed for the reconstruction of the castle’s construction stages. The first to be built was the convent house and its construction was launched together with the raising of the enclosure. Within the outer wall, windows and stone projections were made in the place of the planned walls and buildings. The second stage comprised raising of the northern wing as previously planned, this followed by the remaining three wings and the galleries. With the convent house completed, the entrance ramp was built. All these stages had been planned and analyzed beforehand. The stone bailey was built later, in the 14th century. The first to be raised was the defensive wall, this later added some buildings the remains of which can be found in the cellar in the northern fragment of the bailey. The recently carried out research has substantially enriched our knowledge of the Papowo Castle, failing, however, to clarify all the doubts. The currently existing housing development hampers a thorough identification of the castle approachbailey, while due to the destruction of the western wall it is impossible to locate the entrance gate leading to it.
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