Stan badań archeologiczno-architektonicznych nad zamkiem krzyżackim w Grudziądzu
Zum Forschungstand des Graudenzer Schlosses
The Teutonic castle in Grudziądz – the state of archaeological and architectural research
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In 2015 nine years passed since the revitalization works in remains of the main tower of the Grudziądz castle started. It was, as it was later demonstrated, the beginning of a new interest in the high castle. The author of the article presents the state of research and the newest archaeological findings. The archaeological excavations conducted in 2008–2009 and 2014 substantially changed the state of knowledge. Not only the preserved remains of the conventual house were recognized, but also new information was gathered on the settlement processes in the period prior to the Teutonic Order. Particularly the research, started in 2008 and conducted by dr A. Pawłowski and Ł. Stawski, and after Pawłowski’s death – continued by the NCU Institute of Archaeology, brought new data on the history of the Grudziądz castle. The main aim of those research was to excavate the preserved remains of the conventual house and recognize the settlement from the period before the Teutonic Order came there. In 2014 the revitalization works in the castle hill started. The territory of the old high castle have been turned into a historical garden. The aim of this initiative was to secure and expose the remains of the medieval architecture and bring back the old panorama of Grudziądz by reconstruction of the tower Klimek (demolished in 1945). The revitalization works were preceded by the archaeological and architectural research conducted in the south-western part of the castle. The results of the archaeological survey conducted in Grudziądz in 2008–2009 showed that the castle hill was settled already during the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Eventually, the survey confirmed the traces of intense settlement from the second half of the 7–8th century to the beginning of the 12th century. The youngest cultural stratification is dated back to the early Middle Ages (the second half of the 12th and the first half of the 13th c.). The analyses of excavated relics of the southern wing of the castle indicated that its construction was started perhaps in the 1260s or 1270s. In the initial stage of construction the ground floor of the eastern part of the southern wing was built. The massive southern wing and subsequently constructed other wings made the castle resemble those that had been built in the last thirty years of the 13th c. (e.g. Toruń, Bierzgłowo). Probably only at the beginning of the 14th c. further investments were started. At that time all the curtain walls surrounding the internal castle courtyard were built. The state of knowledge of the castle construction changed also due to the survey conducted in 2013–2014 by the Aureus company. The survey provided us with new data about the remains of the walls of the so-called “commander’s house” on the zwinger (castle parcham). Such findings are important in the context of the source information on the commander’s house, which, according to the analyses, should have been located in this part of the castle. The oldest part of the building is undoubtedly the southern wall, which was simultaneously a part of the southern wall of the parcham. The northern wall is older than partition walls and a basement. It is clear now that the castle was constructed gradually. One of the key issues as far as the history of the Grudziądz castle is concerned is the issue of Grudziądz gord. The research findings of 2009 made it clear that during the early Middle Ages there had been a settlement there. However, we still do not know whether this was actually a gord. Nevertheless, on the basis of analogies and particular defensive qualities we can assume that this thesis is plausible. The possibility of existence of a small gord fulfilling some symbolic and religious functions is not excluded.
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