PROBLEMY KONSERWATORSKIE REZYDENCJI SHÕGUNA ASHIKAGA W KIOTO
PROBLEMS IN THE CONSERVATION OF THE RESIDENCE OF SHÕGUN ASHIKAGA IN KYOTO
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Ginkakuji, “The Shrine of the Silver Pavilion” as it is popularly called, is known officially as Jishoji. In 1482, Ashikaga Yoshimasa built a residence, Higashiyama-dono, meaning "Villa of the Eastern Hill," on the site of the destroyed shrine Jodoji, at the base of Higashiyama hill in Kyoto. Of the twelve wooden buildings that once surrounded the garden, only two have survived to the present day: Togudo and Ginkaku. In 1487, the building Tougudo, "the East-facing Pavilion," which Yoshimasa lived in, was built in the shoin style. Dÿjinsai, one of four rooms, served as a model for ceremonial tea rooms for a century. The pavilion is marked by a sign which was personally painted by Yoshimasa in the name of the designer Shuko: the Suko Retreat. In 1489, the building of Ginkaku, "the Silver Pavilion," began. It was completed after the shogun's death. The design of the garden has been attributed to the outstanding painter Sÿami, though presently the prevailing opinion is that Yoshimasa himself designed it. The garden in "the Villa of the Eastern Hill" was based on a model of the Saihÿji shrine, which was regarded as the most beautiful place in the Kyoto area at the time. The early strolling garden with a pond was created (kaienshiki chisen teien). Pines, yews, cherry trees, azaleas and camellias grew there. The garden was divided into two parts: the lower part, with buildings and a pond of a complex form, and the upper part, with a composition of rocks and a spring on the side of the hill. The east-west axis on which the Silver Pavilion is located determines the arrangement of the garden. Along its length there is a ravine which is known as "the Crevice Through Which One Looks At the Moon." Along this axis, 30 meters from Ginkaku, there is a "Waterfall of Moonlight," which comprises part of the Yoshimasa's original design. Water falls from the source at the base of the waterfall into a decorative pond below. The name of these picturesque beauty spots in this part of the garden refer to famous places mentioned in Japanese and Chinese literature. In the forest on the hill there is a spring which was modeled after a construction from Saihoji, where water flows through a graveled trough. After Yoshimasa's death in 1490, the residence was transformed into a Zen shrine. In 1501, the estate was pillaged and fell into ruin. In 1558, the buildings of the shrine, except for Ginkaku and Tougudo, were burned, and some of the trees and stones were used in other gardens. Throughout most of the 16th century, the garden deteriorated. In 1615, the rebuilding of the shrine and restoration of the garden was undertaken. The present composition dates from that period. Many parts of the garden needed to be rebuilt. The size of the pond in the center of the garden was changed. On the site of the pavilion which had been burned in 1558, two formations were created out of white sand: a plane with the pattern of waves and a cut cone. They are unique in terms of their unprecedented composition. At the end of the 1960s, Togudo, the oldest building in the shrine, was restored. The arrangement of the garden with the pond and the island in front of the building is an example of the techniques used in the 14th century. In 1993, a new building designed in the shoin style was added, as well as the Shohoken tea area. Ginkaku and Togudo are regarded by the Japanese government as national treasures, and the garden as a place of particular historical importance with exceptional scenic value; it is seen as an example of excellent spatial arrangement. Ginkakuji is a symbol of the Higashiyama epoch and one of the greatest tourist attractions in Kyoto.
- mgr inż., jest absolwentką Wydziału Architektury Krajobrazu Szkoły Głównej Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie. Obecnie przygotowuje pracę doktorską na Wydziale Architektury Politechniki Warszawskiej, stanowiącą studium historyczne ogrodów w Kioto. Prowadzi wykłady poświęcone ogrodom japońskim, zajmuje się także ich projektowaniem. Jej dorobkiem są liczne wystawy związane z tą tematyką.
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