Status polityczny i prawny dowodztwa litewskiej partyzantki w latach 1944-1953
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POLITICAL AND LEGAL STATUS OF THE LITHUANIAN LEADERSHIP GUERRILLAS IN THE YEARS 1944-1953
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Historically the Lithuanian guerrilla war against the soviet occupation embraces the period from 1944 to 1953 and is divided into three stages: 1944- -1946; 1946 -1948 and from 1949 onwards. The question of the leadership was important throughout the history of the guerrilla war. Not only the commanders of the guerrilla fighters, but also the organizations of the emigres as well as the diplomatic corps thought of themselves as the representatives of Lithuania. However, it was the partisans who were actually fighting the occupants and who therefore were in the closest relationship with the political nation – the undoubted bearer of the sovereignty according to the contemporary worldview. Therefore, to the leadership of the guerrilla movement belonged not only the military, but also the political authority in the occupied Lithuania. If the guerrilla war is interpreted according to the concept of Carl Schmitt, its relation to the political nation becomes apparent. It takes little effort to see in “the defensive-autochthonous defender of home” the modern citizen par excelence – the one who is ready to take up arms in defense of his fatherland. However, this interconnection escaped the attention of Carl Schmitt himself. Therefore “The Theory of Partisan” was left independent of the Carl Schmitt’s concept of the sovereignty (“Sovereign is he who decides on the exception”). But if the guerrilla war is considered as itself the state of exception, it opens the way for the qualitatively new theory.
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