Židé a josefínské školské reformy. Židovští studenti na pražské univerzitě od osmdesátých let 18. století do rozdělení univerzity v roce 1882
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Jews and the Joseph’s educational reforms. Jewish students at Prague University from eighties of the 18th century to division in 1882
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The reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II significantly affected the traditional way of education of the Jewish population. The breakthrough has been heralded by issue of General Study Regulations in 1774, and in particular the issue of the Court Decree of 1781. On the basis of the Court Decree German Jewish schools were established and Jews were allowed to study at all higher education institutions including universities, with the exception of canon law and theology. According to the decree of 1786 Jewish and Christian’s students alike were supposed to be enrolled in the university catalogs, which are a fundamental source of information for tracking of students in universities in the Austrian Empire. The main theme of this paper is monitoring of the Jewish students at Charles University in Prague in the second half of the 19th century (e.g. their numbers on the faculties of the University, their birthplace or home, social status, age structure etc.). The oldest of these catalogs were kept since 1752 and are preserved. There has been a fundamental change of the catalogs on the basis of law about the arrangements of the organization of universities from 1848 and in accordance with General Study Regulations from 1850 – detailed regulations about the management of the catalogs were made and from the mid–19th century, much more detailed information about students is available including religion. This information is not listed in older catalogs that means that Jewish students (even though that until the mid–19th century there and only a few in the catalogs) can be identified only with great difficulty if at all. Some compensation in this context is represented by the inventories of Prague and rural Jews written during the 18th and early 19th century (1723/1724 to 1811), in which it is possible to find more specific information regarding the education of the Jewish population during that period. But even here we face a number of limiting factors – in the case of the most students their field of study is not specified. That means whether they were a Jewish high school student (primarily oriented to other religious education) or they attended university studies. It was indicated only in the case of person who have undergone medical or legal studies. Until 1781 those students mostly graduated in Italian and German universities.
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