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2019 | 8 | 41-50

Article title

Frisian as an Endangered Language: An Overview


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The main goal of the paper is to answer the questions whether Frisian can be referred to as an endangered language and if it managed to survive the constant influence of the surrounding larger cultures and languages. The first point to be analyzed is the geographic distribution of Frisian. The second issue to be considered is the historical and present cultural and social status of the Frisian language. The third matter to be analysed is the lexical variety of Frisian language and its complexity, which made its survival possible. The article takes the diachronic perspective and expounds upon all the mentioned factors and their role in the preservation of Frisian until today. The paper presents an analysis of Frisian along Fishman’s Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (GIDS), its extended and modified version offered by Lewis and Simons (EGIDS) and the UNESCO’s ‘Language Vitality and Endangerment framework’ (LVE) guidelines (2003).


  • University of Opole


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Publication order reference


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