Tematyka prac astronomicznych w pierwszej siedzibie Obserwatorium Krakowskiego
Astronomical topics practised at the first seat of the Cracow Observatory
SESJA NAUKOWA ZORGANIZOWANA PRZEZ KOMISJĘ HISTORII NAUKI PAU I OBSERWATORIUM ASTRONOMICZNE UJ. W 215. rocznicę założenia przez Jana Śniadeckiego Obserwatorium Astronomicznego (9 V 2007)
Languages of publication
The Astronomical Observatory of the Jagellonian University operated at its first place (27, Kopernika street in Cracow) since 1791/92 till 1976. A set of its research programmes contained not only astronomical matter, but also some parts od geophysics, as: meteorology, geomagnetics and – later on – seismology. In this article are presented astronomical subjects. There were – since the beginning, under J. Sniadecki (1756–1830) – : determinations of the geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude) of the Observatory, a daily time service, positional observations of planets (to correct the theories of their motion, as well as to correct some general astronomical tables), positional observations of comets and of asteroids – to determine their orbits, and also – observations of variable stars and of some other phenomena. Under M. Weisse (1798–1863) there appeared also some results of theoretical and computational works. These were: tables of the coordinates of 6 planets (edited in Cracow) and two astrometric catalogues of mean places of stars, based on F. W. Bessel’s (1784–1846) observations, made at Königsberg. (The both catalogues were edited in Russia, by the Petersburg Academy of Sciences). The results of Cracow made astronomical observations during 19th century, and later on – until twenties of 20th cent. were published – in turn – mainly in the: Ephemerides Vindobonenses (Vienna), Monatliche Correspondenz (Gotha), Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch and Astronomische Nachrichten. The papers by T. Banachiewicz (1882–1954) concerned often some theoretical problems of celestial mechanics, also – determination of orbits and – the cracovian calculus, with its applications to geodesy (e.g. the cracovian algorithm of the least-squares method) and to solutions of linear equations. Banachiewicz made also – and realised – a project of the chronokinematograph, a special film-camera recording solar eclipses with a considerable accuracy. The papers by Banachiewicz, as well as those written by his assistants and – later on – by his successors – concerning e.g. the Moon’s physical libration – were published principally in the Acta Astronomica – a journal founded by Banachiewicz in 1925.
- 1. Kreiner J. M., Piotrowska E.: Bibliografia prac profesora Tadeusza Banachiewicza; Prace Komisji Historii Nauki PAU, tom VII, 2005, s. 327–369.
- 2. Mietelski J.: Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego w okresie dyrekcji Franciszka Karlińskiego (1862–1902); Zeszyty Naukowe UJ DCCCIII, Prace Fizyczne, Z. 25, 1986, s. 7–52.
- 3. Mietelski J.: Zarys dziejów Obserwatorium Astronomicznego UJ. W: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Złota Księga Wydziału Matematyki i Fizyki (pod red. B. Szafirskiego); Kraków 2000, s. 26–59.
- 4. Rybka E., P. Rybka: Historia Astronomii w Polsce, tom II; Zakł. Nauk. im. Ossolińskich, Wyd. PAN, 1983; s. 29–37, 63–85, 89–100, 141–152, 165–186.
Publication order reference