Approaches to therapy and prevention of frailty in the light of contemporary medicine
Languages of publication
- Topinkowa E. Aging, disability and frailty. Ann Nutr Metab 2008; 52(Suppl. 1): 6–11.
- Campbell S, Szoeke C. Pharmacological treatment of frailty in the elderly. J Pharm Pract Res 2009; 39(2): 147–151.
- Xue QL. The frailty syndrome: definition and natural history. Clin Geriatr Med 2011; 27(1): 1–15.
- Clegg A, Young J, Iliffe S, et al. Frailty in elderly people. Lancet 2013; 381(9868): 752–762.
- Collard RM, Boter H, Schoevers RA , et al. Prevalence of frailty in community-dwelling older persons: a systematic review. J Am GeriatrSoc 2012; 60(8): 1487–1492.
- Uchmanowicz I, Jankowska-Polańska B, Łoboz-Rudnicka M, et al. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator for optimizing care of Polish patients with frailty syndrome. Clin Interv Aging 2014; 9: 997–1001.
- Ommundsen N, Wyller TB, Nesbakken A, et al. Frailty is an independent predictor of survival in older patients with colorectal cancer.Oncologist 2014; 19(12): 1268–1275.
- Shamliyan T, Talley KM, Ramakrishnan R, et al. Association of frailty with survival: a systematic literature review. Ageing Res Rev 2013;12(2): 719–736.
- Chen X, Mao G, Leng S. Frailty syndrome: an overwiev. Clin Interv Aging 2014; 9: 433–441.
- Hogan DB, MacKnight C, Bergman H. Steering Committee, Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging. Models, definitions, and criteria of frailty. Aging Clin Exp Res 2003; 15(3 Suppl.): 1–29.
- Cruz-Jenoft AJ , Kiesswetter E, Drey M, et al. Nutrition, frailty, and sarcopenia. Aging Clin Exp Res 2017; 29(1): 43–48.
- Lips P. Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev 2001; 22(4): 477–501.
- Visser M, Deeg DJ , Lips P. Low vitamin D and high parathyroid hormone levels as determinants of loss of muscle strength and muscle mass (sarcopenia): the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88(12): 5766–5772.
- Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, et al. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2005; 293(18): 2257–2264.
- Snijder MB, van Schoor NM, Pluijm SM, et al. Vitamin D status in relation to one-year risk of recurrent falling in older men and women.J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91(8): 2980–2985.
- Shardell M, Hicks GE , Miller RR , et al. Association of low vitamin D levels with the frailty syndrome in men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2009; 64(1): 69–75.
- Puts MT, Visser M, Twisk JW , et al. Endocrine and inflammatory markers as predictors of frailty. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford) 2005; 63(4):403–411.
- Lang PO, Michel JP, Zekry D. Frailty syndrome: a transitional state in dynamic process. Gerontology 2009; 55(5): 539–549.
- Rockwood K, Song X, MacKnight C, et al. A global clinical measure of fitness and frailty in elderly people. CMAJ 2005; 173(5): 489–495.
- Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, et al. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56(3): M146–M156.
- Fried LP, Ferrucci L, Darer J, et al. Untangling the concepts of disability, frailty, and comorbidity: implications for improved targeting and care. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004; 59(3): 255–263
- Cherniack EP, Florez HJ, Troen BR. Emerging therapies to treat frailty syndrome in the elderly. Altern Med Rev 2007; 12(3): 246–258.
- De Lepeleire J, Iliffe S, Mann E, et al. Frailty: an emerging concept for general practice. Br J Gen Pract 2009; 59(562): e177–e182.
- Weiss CO. Frailty and chronic diseases in older adults. Clin Geriatr Med 2011; 27(1): 39–52.
- Liu CK, Fielding RA . Exercise as an intervention for frailty. Clin Geriatr Med 2011; 27(1): 101–110.
- Warner Schaire K, Pietrucha M. Mobility and transportation in the elderly. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2000.
- Lobo A. Physical activity and health in the elderly. Emirate of Sharjah: Bentham Science Publishers; 2011.
- Malafarina V, Uriz-Otano F, Iniesta R, et al. Sarcopenia in the eldelry: diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment. Maturitas 2012; 71(2):109–114.
- Bujnowska-Fedak MM, Machaj Z, Steciwko A. Pacjent z zespołem słabości w praktyce lekarza rodzinnego. Terapia 2013; 2(284): 20–27(in Polish).
- Kurpas D, Szwamel K, Soll A, et al. Zespół słabości – wytyczne diagnostyki, terapii i prewencji. Terapia 2017; 2: 6–13 (in Polish).
- Finlayson M, Mallinson T, Barbosa VM. Activities of daily living (ADL ) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL ) items were stable over time in a longitudinal study on aging. J Clin Epidemiol 2005; 58(4): 338–349.
- Clegg A, Barber S, Young J, et al. The Home-based Older People’s Exercise (HOPE) trial: a pilot randomized controlled trial of a homebased exercise intervention for older people with frailty. Age Aging 2014; 43(5): 687–695.
- Gitlin LN , Corcoran M, Winter L, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of a home environmental intervention: effect on efficacy and upset in caregivers and on daily function of persons with dementia. Gerontologist 2001; 41(1): 4–14.
- Toulotte C, Fabre C, Dangremont B, et al. Effects of physical training on the physical capacity of frail, demented patients with a history of falling: a randomized controlled trial. Age Aging 2003; 32(1): 67–73.
- Peri K, Kerse N, Robinson E, et al. Does functionally based activity make a difference to health status and mobility? A randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities (The Promoting Independent Living Study; PILS ). Age Ageing 2008; 37(1): 57–63.
- Timonen L, Rantanen T, Ryynänen OP, et al. A randomized controlled trial of rehabilitation after hospitalization in frail older women:effects on strength, balance and mobility. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2002; 12(3): 186–192.
- Gill TM, Baker DI , Gottschalk M, et al. A program to prevent functional decline in physically frail, elderly persons who live at home.N Engl J Med 2002; 347(14): 1068–1074.
- Chou CH, Hwang CL, Wu YT. Effect of exercise on physical function, daily living activities and quality of life in the frail older adults:a meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012; 93(2): 237–244.
- Cadore EL , Rodríguez-Mañas L, Sinclair A, et al. Effects of different exercise interventions on risk of falls, gait ability, and balance in physically frail older adults: a systematic review. Rejuvenation Res 2013; 16(2): 105–114.
- Brismee JM, Paige RL , Chyu MC, et al. Group and home-basen tai chi in elderly subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil 2007; 21(2): 99–111.
- Wolf SL , Sattin RW , Kutner M, et al. Intense tai chi exercise training and fall occurrences in older, transitionally frail adults: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51(12): 1693–1701.
- Cadore E, Casas-Herrero A, Zambom-Ferraresi F, et al. Multicomponent exercises including muscle power training enhance muscle mass, power output, and functional outcomes in institutionalized frail nonagenarians. Age (Dordrecht) 2014; 36(2): 773–785.
- Sato D, Kaneda K, Wakabayashi H, et al. The water exercise improves health-related quality of life of frail elderly people at day service facility. Qual Life Res 2007; 16(10): 1577–1585.
- Hauer K, Pfistere M, Schuler M, et al. Two years later: a prospective long-term follow-up of a training intervention in geriatric patients with a history of severe falls. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84(10): 1426–1432.
- Chan DCD, Tsou HH, Chang CB, et al. Integrated care for geriatric frailty and sarcopenia: a randomized control trial. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2017; 8(1): 78–88.
- Wolf SL , Barnhart HX, Kutner NG , et al. Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSI T Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44(5):489–497.
- Artaza-Artabe I, Sáez-López P, Sánchez-Hernández N, et al. The relationship between nutrition and frailty: effects of protein intake,nutritional supplementation, vitamin D and exercise on muscle metabolism in the elderly. A systematic review. Maturitas 2016; 93:89–99.
- Płudowski P, Karczmarewicz E, Bayer M, et al. Practical guidelines for the supplementation of vitamin D and the treatment of deficits in Central Europe – recommended vitamin D intakes in the general population and groups at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Endokrynol Pol 2013; 64(4): 319–327.
- Morley JE , Argiles JM, Evans WJ , et al. Nutritional recommendations for the management of sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2010;11(6): 391–396.
- Rejnmark L. Effects of vitamin D on muscle function and performance: a review of evidence from randomized controlled trials. Ther Adv Chronic Dis 2011; 2(1): 25–37.
- Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne H, et al. Effects of a long-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function in community-dwelling older individuals. Osteoporos Int 2009; 20(2): 315–322.
- Moreira-Pfrimer LD , Pedrosa MA, Teixeira L, et al. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency increases lower limb muscle strength in institutionalized older people independently of regular physical activity: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Ann Nutr Metab 2009;54(4): 291–300.
- Sato Y, Iwamoto J, Kanoko T, et al. Low-dose vitamin D prevents muscular atrophy and reduces falls and hip fractures in women after stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Cerebrovasc Dis 2005; 20(3): 187–192.
- Kenny AM, Biskup B, Robbins B, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on strength, physical function, and health perception in older, community-dwelling men. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003 51(12): 1762–1767.
- Bunout D, Barrera G, Leiva L, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects. Exp Gerontol 2006; 41(8): 746–752.
- Brunner RL , Cochrane B, Jackson RD , et al. Calcium, vitamin D supplementation, and physical function in the Women’s Health Initiative.J Am Dietetic Assoc 2008; 108(9): 1472–1479.
- Janssen HC, Samson MM, Verhaar HJ. Muscle strength and mobility in vitamin D-insufficient female geriatric patients: a randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Aging Clin Exp Res 2010; 22(1): 78–84.
- Latham NK , Anderson CS, Lee A, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of quadriceps resistance exercise and vitamin D in frail older people: the Frailty Interventions Trial in Elderly Subjects (FITNESS ). J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51(3): 291–299
- Lips P, Binkley N, Pfeifer M, et al. Once-weekly dose of 8400 IU vitamin D3 compared with placebo: effects on neuromuscular function and tolerability in older adults with vitamin D insufficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91(4): 985–991.
- Witham MD, Crighton LJ , Gillespie ND , et al. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on physical function and quality of life in older patients with heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. Circ Heart Fail 2010; 3(2): 195–201.
- Dhesi JK , Jackson SH, Bearne LM, et al. Vitamin D supplementation improves neuromuscular function in older people who fall. Age Ageing 2004; 33(6): 589–595.
- Ferrando AA , Sheffield-Moore M, Yevkler CW, et al. Testosterone administration to older men improves muscle function: molecular and physiological mechanisms. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 282(3): E601–E607.
- Espinoza S, Walston JD . Frailty in older adults: insights and interventions. Cleve Clin J Med 2005; 72(12): 1105–1112.
- Muller M, van den Beld AW , van der Shouw YT, et al. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and atamestane supplementation on frailty in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91(10): 3988–3991.
- Morales AJ , Haubrich RH, Hwang JY, et al. The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA ) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford)1998; 49(4): 421–432.
- Rudman D, Feller AG , Nagraj HS, et al. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. N Engl J Med 1990; 323(1): 1–6.
- Blackman MR, Sorkin JD , Munzer T, et al. Growth hormone and sex steroid administration in healthy aged women and men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 288(18): 2282–2292.
- Liu H, Bravata D, Olkin I, et al. Systematic review: the safety and efficacy of growth hormone in the healthy elderly. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146(2): 104–115.
- Onder G, Penninx BW, Balkrishna R, et al. Relation between use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and muscle strength and physical function in older women: an observational study. Lancet 2002; 359(9310): 926–930.
- Sumukadas D, Witham M, Struthers AD , et al. Effect of perindopril on physical function in elderly people with functional impairment: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2007; 177(8): 867–874.
- Kelaiditi E, Guyonnet S, Cesari M. Is nutrition important to postpone frailty? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2015; 18(1): 37–42.
- Volkert D, Berner YN, Berry E, et al. ES PEN guidelines on enteral nutrition: geriatrics. Clin Nutr 2006; 25(2): 330–360.
- Kim H, Suzuki T, Kim M, et al. Effects of exercise and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) supplementation on body composition,physical function, and hematological parameters i community-dwelling frail Japanese women: a randomized double blind, placebocontrolled,follow-up trial. PloS One 2015; 10(2): 1–20.
- Kim CO, Lee KR . Preventive effect of protein-energy supplementation on the functional decline on frail older adults with low socioeconomic status: a community-based randomized controlled study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2013; 68(3): 309–316.
- Ng TP, Feng L, Nyunt MS, et al. Nutritional, physical, cognitive, and combination interventions and frailty reversal among older adults:a randomized controlled trial. Am J Med 2015; 128(11): 1225–1236.
- human nutrition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007 [cited 28.06.2017]. Available from URL : http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43411/1/WHO_TRS _935_eng.pdf?ua=1.
- Paddon-Jones D, Rasmussen BB. Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009; 12(1): 86–90.
- Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Staehelin HB, et al. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ 2009; 339: b3692, doi: 10.1136/bmj.b3692.
- Bauer JM, Verlaan S, Bautmans I, et al. Effects of a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement on measures of sarcopenia in older adults, the PRO VIDE study: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2015; 16(9):740–747.
- Smoliner C, Norman K, Scheufele R, et al. Effects of food fortification on nutritional and functional status in frail elderly nursing home residents at risk of malnutrition. Nutrition 2008; 24(11–12): 1139–1144.
- Cornish SM, Chilibeck PD. Alpha-linolenic acid supplementation and resistance training in older adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2009;34(1): 49–59.
- Kim HK, Suzuki T, Saito K, et al. Effects of exercise and amino acid supplementation on body composition and physical function in community-dwelling elderly Japanese sarcopenic women: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012; 60(1): 16–23.
- Dillon EL , Sheffield-Moore M, Paddon-Jones D, et al. Amino acid supplementation increases lean body mass, basal muscle protein synthesis, and insulin-like growth factor-I expression in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94(5): 1630–1637
- Flakoll P, Sharp R, Baier S, et al. Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and lysine supplementation on strength, functionality,body composition, and protein metabolism in elderly women. Nutrition 2004; 20(5): 445–451.
- Vukovich MD, Stubbs NB, Bohlken RM. Body composition in 70-year-old adults responds to dietary beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate similarly to that of young adults. J Nutr 2001; 131(7): 2049–2052.
- Deutz NE , Pereira SL , Hays NP, et al. Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on lean body mass during 10 days of bed rest in older adults. Clin Nutr 2013; 32(5): 704–712.
- Stout JR , Smith-Ryan AE , Fukuda DH, et al. Effect of calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) with and without resistance training in men and women 65+yrs: a randomized, double-blind pilot trial. Exp Gerontol 2013; 48(11): 1303–1310.
- Bonnefoy M, Cornu C, Normand S, et al. The effects of exercise and protein-energy supplements on body composition and muscle function in frail elderly individuals: a long-term controlled randomized study. Br J Nutr 2003; 89(5): 731–739.
- Bunout D, Barrera G, de la Maza P, et al. The impact of nutritional supplementation and resistance training on the health functioning of free-living Chilean elders: results of 18 months of follow-up. J Nutr 2001; 131(9): 2441s–2446s.
- Tieland M, Dirks ML, van der Zwaluw N, et al. Protein supplementation increases muscle mass gain during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly people: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012; 13(8): 713–719.
- Chalé A, Cloutier GJ , Hau C, et al. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in lean mass,muscle strength, and physical function in mobility-limited older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2013; 68(6): 682–690.
- Tieland M, van de Rest O, Dirks ML, et al. Protein supplementation improves physical performance in frail elderly people: a randomized,double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012; 13(8): 720–726.
- Villareal DT, Chode S, Parimi N, et al. Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults. N Engl J Med 2011;364(13): 1218–1229.
- Fairhall N, Sherrington C, Kurrle S, et al. Economic evaluation of a multifactorial, interdisciplinary intervention versus usual care to reduce frailty in frail older people. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2015; 16(1): 41–48.
- Luger E, Dorner TE, Haider S, et al. Effects of a home-based and volunteer-administered physical training, nutritional, and social support program on malnutrition and frailty in older persons: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2016; 17(7): 671.e9-671.e16, doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2016.04.018
- Kapan A, Luger E, Haider S, et al. Fear of falling reduced by a lay led home-based program in frail community-dwelling older adults:a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2017; 68: 25–32.
- Haider S, Luger E, Kapan A, et al. Associations between daily physical activity, handgrip strength, muscle mass, physical performance and quality of life in prefrail and frail community-dwelling older adults. Qual Life Res 2016; 25(12): 3129–3138.
- Chan DD , Tsou HH, Yang RS , et al. A pilot randomized controlled trial to improve geriatric frailty. BMC Geriatrics 2012; 12: 58, doi:10.1186/1471-2318-12-58.
- Dai B, Li J, Cuijpers P. Psychological treatment of depressive symptoms in Chinese elderly inpatients with significant medical comorbidity:a meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry 2011; 11: 92, doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-11-92.
- Wetherell JL , Gatz M, Craske MG. Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in older adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71(1): 31–40.
- Ostir GV, Ottenbacher KJ , Markides KS . Onset of frailty in older adults and the protective role of positive affect. Psychol Aging 2004;19(3): 402–408
- van Koningsbruggen GM, Harris PR, Smits AJ , et al. Self-affirmation before exposure to health communications promotes intentions and health behavior change by increasing anticipated regret. Communication Res 2016; 43(8): 1027–1044.
- Parry SW , Bamford C, Deary V, et al. Cognitive-behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older people: therapy development and randomized controlled trial – the Strategies for Increasing Independence, Confidence and Energy (STRIDE ) study.Health Technol Assess 2016; 20(56): 1–206.
- Doumas M, Rapp MA, Krampe RT. Working memory and postural control: adult age differences in potential for improvement, task priority, and dual tasking. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2009; 64(2): 193–201.
- Verghese J, Mahoney J, Ambrose AF. Effect of cognitive remediation on gait in sedentary seniors. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010;65(12): 1338–1343.
- Li KZ, Roudaia E, Lussier M, et al. Benefits of cognitive dual-task training on balance performance in healthy older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010; 65(12): 1344–1352.
- Smith-Ray RL , Hughes SL , Prohaska TR, et al. Impact of cognitive training on balance and gait in older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2015; 70(3): 357–366
- Gustafsson S, Wilhelmson K, Eklund K, et al. Health-promoting interventions for persons aged 80 and older are successful in the shortterm results from the randomized and three-armed Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012; 60(3): 447–454.
- Monteserin E, Brotons C, Moral I, et al. Effectiveness of a geriatric intervention in primary care: a randomized clinical trial. Fam Pract 2010; 27(3): 239–245.
- van Hout HP, Jansen AP, van Marwijk HW, et al. Prevention of adverse health trajectories in a vulnerable elderly population through nurse home visits: a randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010; 65(7): 734–742.
- Favela J, Castro LA , Franco-Marina F, et al. Nurse home visits with or without alert buttons versus usual care in the frail elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Interv Aging 2013; 8: 85–95.
- Bindels J, Cox K, Widdershoven G, et al. Care for community-dwelling frail older people: a practice nurse perspective. J Clin Nurs 2014;23(15–16): 2313–2322, doi: 10.1111/jocn.12513.
- van Kempen JA , Robben SH, Zuidema SU , et al. Home visits for frail older people: a qualitative study on the needs and preferences of frail older people and their informal caregivers. Br J Gen Pract 2012; 62(601): e554–e560, doi: 10.3399/bjgp12X653606.
- Soll A, Szwamel K, Bujnowska-Fedak MM, et al. Frailty syndrome in community care – tips for patients and their caregivers. MSP 2017;11(1): 31–36.
- Tazkarji B, Lam R, Lee S, et al. Approach to preventive care in the elderly. Can Fam Physician 2016; 62(9): 717–721.
- Barber SE , Clegg AP, Young JB. Is there a role for physical activity in preventing cognitive decline in people with mild cognitive impairment?Age Ageing 2012; 41(1): 5–8.
- Joyner MJ, Green DJ . Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors. J Physiol 2009; 587(Pt 23):5551–5558.
- van Pragg H. Exercise and the brain: something to chew on. Trends Neurosci 2009; 32(5): 283–290.
- Prazeres F, Santiago L. Relationship between health-related quality of life, perceived family support and unmet health needs in adult patients with multimorbidity attendind primary care in Portugal: a multicenter cross-sectional study. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2016;14(1): 156.
- Eurofound. Third European Quality of Life Survey-Quality of life in Europe: subjective well-being. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; 2013.
- Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL , et al., eds. Dietary reference intakes for Calcium and vitamin D. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US ); 2011.
- Bischoff-Ferrari HA. Optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for multiple health outcomes. Adv Exp Med Biol 2014; 810: 500–525.
- Bolland MK, Leung W, Tai V, et al. Calcium intake and risk of fractures. BMJ 2015; 351: h4580, doi: 10.1136/bmj.h4580.
- Hansen KE , Johnson RE , Chambers KR , et al. Treatment of vitamin D dedificiency in post-menopausal women. A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 2015; 175(10): 1612–1621
- Cano A, Kurpas D, Bujnowska-Fedak MM, et al. FOCUS : Frailty Management Optimisation through EI PAHA Commitments and Utilisation of Stakeholders’ Input – an innovative European Project in elderly care. Fam Med Prim Care Rev 2016; 18(3): 373–376.
- Gwyther H, Cooke R, Shaw R, et al. Perceptions and experiences of frailty interventions: quantitative and qualitative results from a survey of partners within the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EI P-AHA). Cambridge University Press.Ageing Soc 2017; 1–25, doi: http://doi.org/10.1017/S044686X17000265
Publication order reference