Zamek w Lipienku na ziemi chełmińskiej
The castle in Lipienek on the Chełmno's Land
Die Burg in Lipienek im Kulmerland
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The castle in Lipienek remained always on the periphery of the researchers’ interest. However, at the end of 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, persons such as Conrad Steinbrecht and Karl Heine Clasen finally paid attention to it. After the World War II the castle was mentioned in general studies, and in the recent years – in popular and scientific ones. Lipienek also took Tomasz Torbus’ notice, who analyzed the existing knowledge on conventual castles. The first reference about Lipienek originates from 1277 and concerns the devastation of the wooden fortress by the Prussians. The castle was the residence of the commanders of the Chełmno Land, on behalf of whom the residence was administered by vice-commanders up till ca 1335-1337. Ca 1340, in place of liquidated offices, the Lipienieckie voytship was created. In 1330, Władysław Łokietek besieged the castle without success. In 1410 and 1454, the fortress was taken by the Polish divisions. After the Second Peace of Thorn, it became the residence of starosts. The castle was destroyed during the Swedish Deluge, as a result of Partitions of Poland it went into Prussian hands – its ruins were pulled down. The appearance of the castle is possible to be reconstructed thanks to modern inspections – first of all the one from 1565 as well as the existing relics. It is not clear whether the fortress was raised in the place of earlier fortifications. The castle was situated on the peninsula cutting in the waters of the Castle Lake. It consisted of three parts. The convent’s house – the High Castle was furthermost. It was preceded by first ward on trapezoid-like plan. In the place where peninsula connects with the mainland, there supposedly was another – external ward, covered by moat, the relics of which preserved up till today. The building occupying it is described in modern inspections. The gateway to the first ward led through the crossing-tower, and along the curtains there spread bolt and brick buildings, the layout of which in the modern period can be reconstructed on the basis of the description from 1565. In the gate’s neighborhood, there stood a storeyed building. Along the north curtain, starting from the north, there were arranged: tenement house, stable, apprentice house. From the last of the buildings, the barrel vaulted basement preserved up till today. From the south, beginning from the west, at the ward’s curtain stood: byre and barn. The High Castle was surrounded by baileys. The Convent’s House had four wings and the north-east corner was occupied by the main tower. The courtyard was circled by brick cloisters. The building was at least with a basement and had two ground storeys. The medieval disposition of interiors is difficult to reconstruct on the basis of the 16th century descriptions because the castle was converted by starosts in the modern times. What results from them, is that on the ground floor of the west wing there was kitchen and bakery. In the descriptions, there is no record about a chapel. Its original localization might be guessed in the east part of the south wing. From the south, the castle complex was additionally surrounded by an earth bank, and the curtain wall was closing the moat between the High Castle and ward, bent at an angle, the wall could come into being during the modernization of fortress at the beginning of 15th century. On the basis of analogy to the fortress in Papowo Biskupie and Golub, one may assume that the Castle in Lipienek was raised in the beginning of 14th century, however it is necessary to conduct archaeological-architectural research in order to receive answers to questions regarding the chronology and to better identify the fortress’ architecture.
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