ІНТЕГРАЦІЯ ТА ІНКЛЮЗІЯ: РІЗНІ ПІДХОДИ ДО РОЗВ’ЯЗАННЯ ОДНІЄЇ ПРОБЛЕМИ
Integration and Inclusion: different approaches to solving one problem
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The article emphasizes the need to clarify the concepts of «integration» and «inclusion» considering their complexity and diversity. The essence of these concepts is defined. It has been found out that the most commonly used is determination of educational integration as a process and result of creating opportunities for students with learning impairments in regular secondary schools. It is shown that the concepts of «integration» and «inclusion» have both common and distinctive features. Different positions of scientists as for determining the correlation of the defined concepts are considered. Three main approaches to solving the definite problem are separated. It has been shown that the inclusion is seen as a wider process of integration which involves raising the level of access to education for all citizens through the creation of appropriate conditions to meet the diverse educational needs of all students at educational institutions of common type. It has been revealed that another position of scientists is related to understanding the inclusion as a stage in the development of education. The «integration» is indicated to involve joint training of healthy children and children with special needs, with the latter have to adapt to constant conditions established at the institution, while «inclusion» means a significant reorganization of the educational system to meet the needs of all students without exception. It has been established that the third position of researchers on correlation between «integration» and «inclusion» refers to understanding inclusion as a particular case of integration. Inclusion is correlated with full integration. Among the arguments over the legitimacy of the identification of the concepts explored is mismatch of the phrase «full integration» to the essence of the concept of «inclusion». It has been concluded that each of the reviewed scientific positions on the problem of the nature and interrelation of the concepts of «integration» and «inclusion» has its merit. The basis of differences between them is in different understanding of the term «integration». The most convincing opinion is recognized to be the one on understanding of integration and inclusion as two appropriate stages of education with both similarities and differences.
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