Objev pohřební komory hodnostáře Nefera
Discovery of an intact burial chamber in the rock-cut tomb of Nefer (AS 68d)
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During the spring season of 2014 in Abusir, the Czech mission focused on further archaeological exploration of the tomb complex of Nefer, dating to the second half of the Fifth Dynasty. Working inside his rock-cut chapel, two more shafts (out of four) were explored. Shaft 1, located in the southernmost part of the room, belonged to Nefer himself. The shaft opening corresponds with the principal false door of the room, that of Nefer. The shaft is 6 m deep, with a buri - al chamber opening to the south. The room was entered from the north. The entrance was originally blocked by a wall built of smaller and larger limestone chips, limestone blocks and mud bricks joined with mud mortar. The wall was broken by ancient tomb robbers in the eastern part. The burial chamber was found with the ceiling largely collapsed. Thus it was impossible to work inside the chamber but for a few hours. Therefore only very few measurements could be taken. The room measures roughly 3.67 × 2.25 m in ground plan. Most of the room was occupied by a large limestone sarcophagus (its chest mea - suring 2.25 × 1.05 × 0.75 m). Inside the sarcophagus, a completely destroyed burial was found, pushed to the south part of the sarcophagus (380/AS68/2014). It belonged to amale person of about 40–60 years of age. From the buri - al equipment, only a group of miniature model vessels made of limestone was found, consisting of 70 plates and 16 cups. Shaft 4, which is 4.5 m deep, is located close to the entrance into the chapel. The east wall of the shaft was shaped into a “manoeuvring recess” across the last 1.90 m of its length and so cut away the corner of the west wall of the shaft above the entrance into the burial chamber. The burial chamber is located to the west of the shaft and was found sealed with an intact stone wall. The burial chamber itself measures 2.96 × 2.14 × 0.80 m and it is orientated in the north-south direction. Most of the space was taken up by a limestone sarcophagus which is 2.50 m long, 1.10 m wide and 0.80 m high (chest). Remains of very limited intact burial equipment were discovered during the course of archaeological documentation inside the chamber. It consisted of four canopic vessels originally placed on the southern end of the sarcophagus lid (388/AS68/2014). These were originally placed in a wooden box which was found completely decayed. Due to post-depositional processes, one canopic vessel and two lids were found in the fill on the south side of the sarcophagus. Apart from this, only one beer jar was found lying on the floor of the chamber, in the southwest corner, and some small fragments of miniature copper vessels originating from the fill of the chamber could be documented. Since the sarcophagus was found sealed, it was officially opened in collaboration with the representatives of the Saqqara Inspectorate of Antiquities, the director Mr. Allah Shehata and chief inspector Mr. Sabri, on March 19. After the lid was pushed aside, a well preserved skeleton (not a mummy) (389/AS68/2014) was discovered inside. It belonged to an anonymous official of 40–60 years of age. He was lying in an outstretched position, head to the north. Along his eastern side a decayed wooden stick could be seen. Otherwise only small faience amulets and tiny pieces of golden foil were found. The faience amulets were found on the ankles and wrists of the deceased and included three different shapes, very close to the hieroglyphic signs “n”, “r” and “nb”.
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