PL EN


2010 | 3 | 2 | 225-247
Article title

IMPACT OF INDIVIDUAL CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ON TV COMMERCIALS’ EFFECTIVENESS

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
Every nation has its own way of living, traditions, values, and norms. The cultural practices vary among the countries all over the world. The advertisement itself, the messages conveyed and the actors performing in it depend on the cultural characteristics of the country. The development level of the countries may have an impact on the cultural values of individuals; hence on the consumption behavior and marketing applications. Individual cultural differences may call for certain adaptations in the messages, content, and style of the advertisements for a certain target group. Depending on this view, this research tries to analyze the effects of individual differences on the advertising effectiveness in an emerging country, Turkey.. The effectiveness of each advertisement was measured in terms of the persuasiveness and liking. Furthermore, individual cultural differences were analyzed on two dimensions of masculinity and power distance, which were introduced by Hofstede (1983). All the masculinity statements were grouped under one factor whereas power distance statements were grouped under two subdimensions namely “trust for subordinates” and “obedience to authority”. The masculinity scale was found to create significant difference in the effectiveness of the advertisements. However, the power distance did not create any difference between the effectiveness levels. Individual cultural traits did not create any difference in the effectiveness of advertisements except in ads which carry masculine cues (called ‘masculine ads’ throughout the text). If the ad carried masculine cues, then, feminine individuals evaluated effectiveness of masculine ads significantly lower than did the masculine individuals.
Year
Volume
3
Issue
2
Pages
225-247
Physical description
Contributors
References
  • Agrawal, M. (1993). Review of a 40-Year Debate in International Advertising: Practitioner and Academician Perspectives to the Standardization Adaptation Issue. International Marketing Review, 12(1), 26-48.
  • An, D. & Sanghoon, K. (2007). Relating Hofstede’s Masculinity Dimension to Gender Role Portrayals in Advertising: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Web Advertisements. International Marketing Review, 24(2), 181-207.
  • Arnold, D.J. & Quelch, J.A. (1998). New Strategies in Emerging Markets. Sloan Management Review, 40(1), 7-20.
  • Atkin, J.L. & Beltramini, R.F. (2007). Exploring the Perceived Believability of the DTC Advertising in the US. Journal of Marketing Communications, 13(3), 169-180.
  • Belke, A. (2005). Turkey on Transition to EU Membership: Pros and Cons of Integrating a Dynamic Economy. Perceptions, Journal of International Affairs, 10, 53-62
  • Burgess, S.M. & Steenkamp, J.B. (2006). Marketing Renaissance: How Research in Emerging Consumer Markets Advances Marketing Science and Practice. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 23 (December), 337-356.
  • Chaudhuri, A. (1996). The Effect of Media, Product and Message Factors on Ad Persuasiveness: The Role of Affect and Cognition. Journal of Marketing Communications, 2(4), 201–218
  • Choi, Y.K. & Miracle, G.E. (2004). The Effectiveness of Comparative Advertising in Korea and the United States- A Cross-Cultural and Individual Level Analysis. Journal of Advertising, 33(4), 75-78.
  • Culpepper, R.A. & Watts, L. (1999). Measuring Cultural Dimensions at the Individual Level: An Examination of the Dorfman and Howell (1988) Scales and Robertson and Hoffman (1999). Scale Academy of Strategic and Organizational Leadership Journal, 3(1), 22-35
  • Dawar, N. & Chattopadhyay, A. (2000). Rethinking Marketing Programs for Emerging Markets. Working Papers-Ivey Business School, 03, 1-28
  • Dickinson, R. (2000). Food and Eating on Television: Impacts and Influences. Nutrition and Food Science, 30(1), 24-29.
  • Earley, P.C. & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across Cultures. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Fam, K.-S. & Grohs, R. (2007). Cultural Values and Effective Executional Techniques in Advertising – A Cross-Country and Product Category Study of Urban Young Adults in Asia. International Marketing Review, 24(5), 519-538.
  • Fan, Y. (2008). The Rise of Emerging Market Multinationals and Its Impact on Marketing. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 26(4), 353-358
  • Greene, W.F. (1992). Observations - What Drives Commercial Liking - An Exploration of Entertainment vs. Communication. Journal of Advertising Research, 32(2), 65-68.
  • Gregory, G.D. & Munch, J.M. (1997). Cultural Values in International Advertising: An Examination of Familial Norms and Roles in Mexico. Psychology and Marketing, 14(2), 99-119.
  • Hall, E.T. (1959). The Silent Language Garden City, NY: DoubleDay.
  • Haley, R.I. & Baldinger, A.L. (2000). The ARF Copy Research Validity Project. Journal of Advertising Research, 40(6), 114-135.
  • Han, S.-P. & Shavitt, S. (1994). Persuasion and Culture - Advertising Appeals in Individualistic and Collectivistic Societies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30(4), 326-350.
  • Hofstede, G. (1983). The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories. Journal of International Business Studies, 14(2), 75-89.
  • Hofstede, G. (1984). The Cultural Relativity of the Quality of Life Concept. The Academy of Management Review, 9(3), 389-398.
  • Hong, J.W., Muderrisoglu, A. & Zinkham, G.M. (1987). Cultural Differences and Advertising Expression: A Comparative Content Analysis of Japanese and US Magazine Advertising. Journal of Advertising, 16(1), 55-62.
  • Jeon, J.O. & Beatty, S.E. (2002). Comparative Advertising Effectiveness in Different National Cultures. Journal of Business Research, 55(11), 907- 913.
  • Johnstone, H., Kaynak, E. & Sparkman, R.M. (1987). A Cross-Cultural/Cross-National Study of the Information Content of Television Advertisements. International Journal of Advertising, 6(3), 223-236.
  • Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2007). Principles of Marketing, 12th ed., NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Koudelova, R. & Whitelock, J. (2001). A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Television Advertising in the UK and the Czech Republic. International Marketing Review, 18(3), 286-300.
  • Laskey, H.A., Fox, R.J. & Crask, M.R. (1994). Investigating the Impact of Executional Style on Television Commercial Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research, 34(6), 9-16.
  • Loken, B. & Howard-Pitney, B. (1988). Effectiveness of Cigarette Advertisements on Women: An Experimental Study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(3), 378-382.
  • Mon, Y.S. & Chan, K. (2005). Advertising Appeals and Cultural Values in Television Commercials: A Comparison of Hong Kong and Korea. International Marketing Review, 22(1), 48-66.
  • Morris, P.K. (2004). Overexposed: Issues of Public Gender Imaging, the Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, LA.: New Orleans.
  • Morris, P. & Lee, S. (2005). Culture and Advertising: An Empirical Study of Cultural Dimensions on the Characteristics of Advertisements, International Communication Association, Annual Convention, Communication: Questioning the Dialogue for the Intercultural Communication Division, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1-27
  • Orth, U.R. & Koenig, H.F. (2007). Cross-National Differences in Consumer Response to the Framing of Advertising Messages an Exploratory Comparison from Central Europe. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 327-348.
  • Özgen, H. & Mimaroglu, H. (2008). Business Groups in Emerging Markets: The Case of Turkey. Journal of Global Strategic Management, 03, 138- 145.
  • Rogers, P. & Tan, J.-S. (2008.) Fifty Years of Intercultural Study: A Continuum of Perspectives for Research and Teaching. Ross School of Business Working Paper Series, Working Paper 1104, Retrieved June 1, 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1132328
  • Roth, M.S. (1995). The Effects of Culture and Socioeconomics on the Performance of Global Brand Image Strategies. Journal of Marketing Research, 32(2), 163-175.
  • Ryu, S. & Cook, M. (2005). The Effect of LTO Culture on International Supply Chain Contracts. The Journal of Applied Business Research, 21(4), 95- 106.
  • Schwartz, S.H. (1999). A Theory of Cultural Values and Some Implications for Work Applied Psychology: An International Review. 48(1), 23-47 Steenkamp, J.-B.E.M., Hofstede, F. & Wedel, M. (1999). A Cross-National Investigation into the Individual and National Cultural Antecedents of Consumer Innovativeness. The Journal of Marketing, 63(2), 55-69.
  • Steenkamp, J.-B.E.M. (2001). The Role of National Culture in International Marketing Research. International Marketing Review, 18(1), 30-44. Stone, G., Besser, D. & Lewis, L.E. (2000). Recall, Liking, and Creativity in TV Commercials: A New Approach. Journal of Advertising Research, 40(3), 7-18.
  • Tai, H.C.S. (2004). The Relationship of Cultural Values and Message Strategies in Service Advertising. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 22(4), 438-454.
  • Tatoglu, E. & Demirbag, M. (2008). Transition in the Age of Anxiety: The Turkish Case. Journal of Management Development, 27(7), 653-659
  • Taylor, C.R., Miracle, G.E. & Wilson, R.D. (1997). The Impact of Information Level on the Effectiveness of U.S. and Korean TV Commercials. Journal of Advertising, 26(1), 1-18.
  • Trompenaars, F. & Hampden-Turner, C. (1997). Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business, 2nd Ed. NY: McGraw-Hill.
  • Uray, N. & Burnaz, S. (2003). An Analysis of the Portrayal of Gender Roles in Turkish Television Advertisements. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 48, 77-89.
  • Walker, D. & Dubitsky, T.M. (1994). Why Liking Matters. Journal of Advertising Research, 34(3), 9-18.
  • Waller, D.S. & Fam, K.S. (2000). Cultural Values and Advertising in Malaysia: Views from the Industry. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 12(1), 3-16.
  • Whitelock, J. & Rey, J.-C. (1998). Cross-Cultural Advertising in Europe an Empirical Survey of Television Advertising in France and the UK. International Marketing Review, 15(4), 257-276.
  • Zhang, Y. & Neelankavil, J.P. (1995). The Influence of Culture on Advertising Effectiveness in China and the USA: A Cross Cultural Study. European Journal of Marketing, 31(2), 134-149.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-56dbb968-9991-4aa2-98fb-eb9adc95c8a6
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.