2012 | Tom VII (XLVIII), fasc. B | 225-234
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Magdalenian Campsite Ćmielów 95 “Mały Gawroniec,” the Świętokrzyskie voivodeship
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Introduction The aim of this article is a presentation of the first results of research at Site 95/430 AZP 85-71 “Mały Gawroniec” in Ćmielów, the Ostrowiec District, the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. The data come from the first three seasons of excavations: 2005, 2006 and 2007. Location and History of Research Ćmielów Site 95 “Mały Gawroniec” is located in the northern edge of the Opatów-Sandomierz patch of loess, in the border of two geographical regions: the Sandomierz Upland, built in the main part ofloess, and the Iłża Foothills, built mainly of Quaternary sands and clays (KONDRACKI 2002: 270, 272-273, 277-278). “Mały Gawroniec” is a local name of a characteristic loess hill, well visible in a landscape. It is located about 300 m from the buildings of the town of Ćmielów, between two small rivers: the Kamienna and the Przepaść (Fig. 1, 2). Ćmielów Site 95 was discovered in the Spring 2004, during a verification survey. Since 2005 at “Mały Gawroniec” the regular archaeological excavation research has been carried on. settlement structures Until now, from 14 trenches (I-XIY), which cover a total area of about 365 m2, a large collection of about 15500 artefacts, mainly flints, stones and some pottery sherds, was gained, together with six structures of settlement character. The most interesting are three settlement structures, which are part of the remains of a Magdalenian camp (Fig. 3). Pit No. 1 was found on the depth of 45 cm from the ground level. It has a regular oval shape, elongated on the east-west polar axis; its size was 2 x 2.2 m. In the upper part of the pit one can distinguish three lithological rings which have different colours and textures (Fig. 3, 4). The section of the discussed structure has a trapezoid shape, wider at the base, with well distinguished walls, and an almost flat bottom (Fig. 5). In the north-western part of Pit No. 1, another pit, documented as No. 2 was attached. It reaches 20 x 50 cm, with the shape suiting the edges of the “wall” of Pit No. 1. Its fill consisted of black-grey mixture of firm loess and sharp-edged limestone rubble (Fig. 3). Moreover, in the north-eastern part of Trench II/III, three unclear, strongly washed out dark spots were found. They have the diameters of 8-10 cm. This concen- tration was documented as Pit No. 3a-c (Fig. 3). Flint Finds Flint artefacts are the most numerous in our col- lection, and they total about 14000 items. This inventory includes a few basic typological groups of products: cores (single- and double-platform ones - Fig. 6, 7), technological spalls, half products (blades, flakes etc.), and retouched tools (backed bladelets, perforators, burins, retouched blades, end scrapers - Fig. 8-10). Stone Finds Stone artefacts were numerously found. These are mainly small sandstone slabs and small pebbles (granite, quartzite, limestone), among which the majority bears the traces of use and/or shaping. In this collection also a few unique examples of portable art were found. These are the small plaquets with quite deep v-shaped grooves visible on one of their faces (Fig. 11-13). The layout of these grooves may lead to an assumption that they formerly were a part of some larger composition, which is now difficult to reconstruct. Another very interesting small object is made of grey slate, and has an elongated shape. Thoroughly polished surface of this artefact is covered by few grooved lines (Fig. 14). Haematite Finds An important part in the collection consists of rather rare, but very interesting finds of tiny (1-2 cm) natural lumps of ochre, together with some worked pieces of this raw material. Lumps of ochre with traces of rubbing, regular grooves, or incisions, and central drilling holes are present in the group (Fig. 15:1-3). Geology of the Site Two palaeosoils occur in the archaeological sec- tion of the site. They are in following relations with the Magdalenian pits: the anthropogenic structure was dug into the earlier palaeosoil, and both: the pit fill, and the overlaying sediment are changed by the later palaeosoil’s pedogenic processes. Two pedogenic periods correspond to the Late Glacial interphases. They are separated by the sediment connected with a cold climate episode, which has a record in the presence of ice wedge structures, filled with earlier palaeosoil. The second pedogenic period was fol- lowed by the next wave of cold and rather wet climate, recorded in deluvial layers with solifluction structures (Fig. 15 - KRAJCARZ 2007: 11-13). Chronology No organic materials, faunistic or floristic (includ- ing charcoals) were preserved at the site. Thus, possible chemical-physical methods of dating are limited, so the exact age of the site is for now difficult to establish. The only chronological premise which gives us cer- tain confidence is the stratigraphic position of settlement structures nos. 1, 2 and 3a-c, which clearly indicates their relation with an accumulation level of fossil soil, dated most probably to the Bolling Period.
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