Problematyka konserwatorsko-adaptacyjna zespołu zamkowego w Bolesławcu
PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN RESTORATION AND ADAPTATION OF AN OLD CASTLE AT BOLESŁAWIEC
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Old castles are occupying quite an exceptional place among architectural monuments from the past times and it is mainly therefore that owing to emotional values linked with their history they belong to that group of historic buildings that are most readily visited by tourists. One of the factors that seems to be decisive for such interest is that the relics of an old fortification, quite irrespectively of the state of their preservation, usually exist in an exceptionally attractive and highly dynamic as to its character natural environment. These close and hardly breakable links between the objects of military architecture and their surroundings are ■with all certainty qualifying them to play the leading role in the development of modern museum displays. Bolesławiec, in our days quite a small settlement within the western area of Łódź voivodship is known from the written sources in which it was mentioned for the first time as early as in 1266. In the years 1268—-1297 a defensive stronghold has been erected here by the Prince Boleslaus the Pious and in the course of the fourteenth century the brick-built castle that was demolished in the 18th century. Up to the present day only one octagonal tower has survived. To reanimate the object and have it included into the flow of our current modern life the only possible in such cases method has been adopted, i.e. that of archaeological exploration. The field works conducted during the three consecutive years have brought a good deal of valuable findings with respect to arrangement of buildings surrounding the court, to plan of walls and the situation of entrance gate. The above findings will form a basis for preparation of design aimed at both safeguarding and displaing the castle. As an extremely important point in considerations concerning the futuro uses that could be planned for the above object is to be taken into account its surrounding landscape. Applying the method of J. Bogdanowski the author analysed the so-calle „landscape interior” at the same time taking into account the configuration of the site and its possible urbanization. In view of the high values of landscape the castle of Bolesławiec calls for special care as it possesses all the possible properties enabling its transformation into one of the most interesting in this country archaeological, architectural and natural reservation sites. In the future museum-reservation the main didactic emphasis will, no doubt, be laid upon the castle itself. All the remaining components as, for instance, the base-court and the mill have to play a subordinated role which is absolutely obvious in view of their functions in the past. Main access to the castle will lead across the bridge situated in the close vicinity of mill. Within the first step of viewing visitors will be made familiar with the history of the settlement and the castle presented in the form of special display. Here also each of them will be provided with a booklet containing the plan of the reservation site serving as guide in his further travel. The second step will consist of viewing the castle proper wrhile the exit wrill be through the base- court and the former valley of the Prosna River in direction of Bolesławiec. Visitors entering the valley should gain an impression that they have been transferred to ,,a quite another world”. According to the author’s view there are every co.idit ons making it possible to gain this impression; they only need to be properly utilized. All the required building as the roads or bridges should be desig led and executed in such wray that they could be easily integrated with the features of existing landscape. As another favourable feature is to be considered the nearly sited settlement of Bolesławiec that can overtake all burden of indispensable service for visitors. This will free the builders of museum-reservation from the need to erect the service buildings within the museum site. On completion of archaeological exploration of the site will be started the wTorks connected with safeguarding of relics revealed by archaeologists and Łódź voivodship will be provided with the extremely interesting historic site. Already now it can be expected that it will prove highly attractive for tourists as it is only a distance of 12 kms from Bolesławiec to the E-12 Route known under the name of „Slavonic Road” crossing t ’..e territory of Poland from the west to oast.
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