PL EN


2015 | 4(219) | 127-158
Article title

Advances and Challenges of Social Epidemiology – the social determinants of health revisited (literature review)

Content
Title variants
PL
Postępy i wyzwania epidemiologii społecznej – raz jeszcze o społecznych uwarunkowaniach zdrowia (przegląd literatury)
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
This literature review revisits the concept of “social determinants of health” in light of new scientific findings and points to key research directions in modern social epidemiology. Recent evidence suggests that not only poverty but also inequality and perceived inferiority exert a detrimental influence on one’s health. It is also now clear that socioeconomic position influences health via various pathways, such as health behaviors, access to health care, environmental exposure, and psychosocial processes. At the same time, there is no definite conclusion as to the leading mechanism that would translate social position into morbidity and mortality. The need for causal explanations has opened up an important field for sociological investigation. Given its increasing international currency and the need to broadly address social inequalities in policy actions, it is time to bring this highly meaningful topic also to our research agenda.
PL
Celem tego przeglądu literatury jest przedstawienie najnowszego stanu wiedzy na temat „społecznych uwarunkowań zdrowia”, a przez to zwrócenie uwagi szerokiego grona polskich socjologów na społecznie generowane nierówności w zdrowiu. Według najnowszych doniesień naukowych nie tylko ekonomiczna deprywacja, ale również subiektywne poczucie niższości wywierają szkodliwy wpływ na zdrowie. Wiadomo też, że pozycja socjoekonomiczna oddziałuje na zdrowie za pośrednictwem zachowań zdrowotnych, dostępu do opieki zdrowotnej, ryzyk środowiskowych i czynników psychospołecznych. Jednocześnie brakuje konsensu co do istoty tego mechanizmu. Potrzeba przyczynowego wyjaśnienia tego zjawiska otwiera nowe, interesujące wątki badawcze dla socjologów. Z uwagi na wielką międzynarodową popularność tej tematyki, jak również jej ogromne znaczenie społeczne, warto zintensyfikować badania socjologiczne w tej dziedzinie.
Year
Issue
Pages
127-158
Physical description
Contributors
  • Centrum Ewaluacji i Analiz Polityk Publicznych Wydział Filozoficzny Uniwersytet Jagielloński, ul. Gołębia 24, 31-007 Kraków , zuzanna.drozdzak@uj.edu.pl
References
  • Addo, J, L Smeeth, and D a Leon. 2009. “Socioeconomic Position and Hypertension: A Study of Urban Civil Servants in Ghana.” Journal of epidemiology and community health 63(8): 646–50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19406743 (May 23, 2014).
  • Adler, Nancy E., Elissa S. Epel, Grace Castellazzo, and Jeannette R. Ickovics. 2000. “Relationship of Subjective and Objective Social Status With Psychological and Physiological Functioning: Preliminary Data in Healthy White Women.” Health Psychology 19(6): 586–92.
  • Adler, Nancy E. and Judith Stewart. 2010. “Health Disparities across the Lifespan: Meaning, Methods, and Mechanisms.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1186: 5–23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20201865 (March 13, 2013).
  • Adler, NE, and JM Ostrove. 1999. “Socioeconomic Status and Health: What We Know and What We Don’t.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 7759: 3–15.
  • Asakawa, Keiko, and Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan. 2012. “Trajectories of Health-Related Quality of Life Differ by Age among Adults: Results from an Eight-Year Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Health Economics 31(1): 207–18.
  • Auchincloss, Amy H et al. 2008. “Neighborhood Resources for Physical Activity and Healthy Foods and Their Association with Insulin Resistance.” Epidemiology 19(1): 146–57. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18091002 (May 28, 2014).
  • Baeten, Steef, Tom Van Ourti, and Eddy van Doorslaer. 2013. “The Socioeconomic Health Gradient across the Life Cycle: What Role for Selective Mortality and Institutionalization?” Social Science & Medicine 97: 66–74. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24161090 (September 30, 2014).
  • Bartley, Mel, and Charlie Owen. 1996. “Relation Between Socioeconomic Status, Employment, And Health During Economic Change.” British Medical Journal 313(7055): 445–49.
  • Beckfield, Jason. 2004. “Does Income Inequality Harm Health? New Cross-National Evidence.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 45(3): 231–48.
  • Bender, Ralf, and Stefan Lange. 2001. “Adjusting for Multiple Testing—when and How?” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 54(4): 343–49. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0895435600003140.
  • Ben-Shlomo, Yoav, and Diana Kuh. 2002. “A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology: Conceptual Models, Empirical Challenges and Interdisciplinary Perspectives.” International Journal of Epidemiology 31: 285–93.
  • Berkman, Lisa F, and Thomas Glass. 2000. “Social Integration, Social Network, Social Support, and Health.” In Social Epidemiology, eds. Lisa F Berkman and Ichiro Kawachi. New York: Oxford University Press, 1–391.
  • Berkman, Lisa F., Thomas Glass, Ian Brissette, and Teresa E. Seeman. 2000. “From Social Integration to Health: Durkheim in the New Millennium.” Social Science & Medicine 51: 843–57.
  • Berkman, Lisa F, and Ichiro Kawachi, eds. 2000. Social Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Black, Douglas. 1982. Inequalities in Health: The Black Report 1980. eds. Peter Townsend and Nick Davidson. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Booske, Bridget C., Jessica K. Athens, David A. Kindig, Hyojun Park and Patrick L. Remington. 2010. Different Perspectives for Assigning Weights to Determinants of Health. University of Wisconsin.
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Brunner, E. et al. 1996. “Childhood Social Circumstances and Psychosocial and Behavioural Factors as Determinants of Plasma Fibrinogen.” Lancet 347(9007): 1008–13.
  • Bunker, Clareann H. et al. 1992. “Factors Associated with Hypertension in Nigerian Civil Servants.” Preventive Medicine 21: 710–22. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/009174359290078V (May 23, 2014).
  • Bunker, J.P. 2001. “The Role of Medical Care in Contributing to Health Improvements within Societies.” International Journal of Epidemiology 30(6): 1260–63. http://www.ije.oupjournals.org/cgi/doi/10.1093/ije/30.6.1260.
  • Bunker, J.P., H.S. Frazier, and F. Mosteller. 1994. “Improving Health: Measuring Effects of Medical Care.” Milbank Quarterly 72: 225–58.
  • Cardano, Mario, Giuseppe Costa, and Moreno Demaria. 2004. “Social Mobility and Health in the Turin Longitudinal Study.” Social Science & Medicine 58(8): 1563–74. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14759699 (June 2, 2013).
  • Cavigelli, Sonia, and Hashim S. Chaudhry. 2012. “Social Status, Glucocorticoids, Immune Function, and Health: Can Animal Studies Help Us Understand Human Socioeconomic-Status-Related Health Disparities?” Hormones and behavior 62(3): 295–313. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22841799 (May 29, 2013).
  • Chaix, Basile et al. 2008. “Residential Environment and Blood Pressure in the PRIME Study: Is the Association Mediated by Body Mass Index and Waist Cir-cumference?” Journal of Hypertension 26(6): 1078–84. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18475144.
  • Chandola, Tarani et al. 2003. “Health Selection in the Whitehall II Study, UK.” Social Science & Medicine 56: 2059–72.
  • Chen, Bonnie et al. 2012. “Subjective Social Status and Functional Decline in Older Adults.” Journal of General Internal Medicine 27(6): 693–99.
  • Cherkas, L F et al. 2006. “The Effects of Social Status on Biological Aging as Meas-ured by White-Blood-Cell Telomere Length.” Aging Cell 5(5): 361–65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16856882 (May 29, 2014).
  • Coburn, David. 2004. “Beyond the Income Inequality Hypothesis: Class, Neo-Liberalism, and Health Inequalities.” Social Science & Medicine 58(1): 41–56. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S027795360300159X (July 20, 2014).
  • Cockerham, William C. 2005. “Health Lifestyle Theory and the Convergence of Agency and Structure.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 46(1): 51–67. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15869120.
  • Cohen, Sheldon, William J. Doyle, and Andrew Baum. 2006. “Socioeconomic Status Is Associated With Stress Hormones.” Psychomatic Medicine 68: 414–20.
  • Conrad, Peter. 2008. “Who Gets Sick? The Unequal Social Distribution of Disease.” In The Sociology of Health and Illness. Critical Perspectives., ed. Peter Conrad. New York: Worth Publishers, 20–23.
  • CSDH WHO. 2008. Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Final Report of the Commision on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva.
  • Dahl, Espen. 1996. “Social Mobility and Health: Cause or Effect?” British Medical Journal 313: 8–11.
  • Demakakos, Panayotes, James Nazroo, Elizabeth Breeze, and Michael Marmot. 2008. “Socioeconomic Status and Health: The Role of Subjective Social Status.” Social Science & Medicine 67: 330–40.
  • Diderichsen, Finn, Timothy Evans, and Margaret Whitehead. 2001. “The Social Basis of Disparities in Health.” In Challenging Inequities in Health. From Ethics to Action., eds. Thimothy Evans et al. New York: Oxford University Press, 1–348.
  • Diez Roux, Ana V, and Christina Mair. 2010. “Neighborhoods and Health.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1186: 125–45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20201871 (May 25, 2014).
  • Droomers, M, C T M Schrijvers, and H Van de Mheen. 1998. “Educational Differences in Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity: A Desriptive and Explanatory Study.” Social Science & Medicine 47(11): 1665–76.
  • Drożdżak, Zuzanna. 2013. “Socjologia analityczna jako uniwersalny program badawczy umożliwiający głębokie wyjaśnienie zjawisk społecznych i skuteczne projektowanie polityk pub. (Analytical Sociology as a Universal Research Programme Explaining Social Phenomena and Effective Polic.” Zarządzanie Publiczne 24-25(2-3): 168–76.
  • Duch, Danuta, and Magdalena Sokołowska. 1990. “Health Inequalities in Poland.” Social Science & Medicine 31(3): 343–50.
  • Engels, Friedrich. 1845. The Condition of the Working Class in England. London: Granada.
  • Fleming, Thomas R, Katherine Odem-Davis, Mark D Rothmann, and Yuan Li Shen. 2011. “Some Essential Considerations in the Design and Conduct of Non-Inferiority Trials.” Clinical trials (London, England) 8(4): 432–39. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3312046&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract (March 5, 2014).
  • Fuller-Iglesias, Heather, Jacqui Smith, and Toni C Antonucci. 2009. “Theories of Aging from a Life-Course and Life-Span Perspective.” Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics 29: 3–25.
  • Galama, Titus J, and Hans van Kippersluis. 2013. “Health Inequalities through the Lens of Health-Capital Theory: Issues, Solutions, and Future Directions.” Research on Economic Inequality 21: 263–84. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?chapterid=17103212 (November 13, 2014).
  • García-Gómez, Pilar, Hans Van Kippersluis, Owen O Donnell, and Eddy Van Doorslaer. 2013. “Long-Term and Spillover Effects of Health Shocks on Em-ployment and
  • Income.” Journal of Human Resources 48(4): 873–909. http://muse.jhu.edu/content/crossref/journals/journal_of_human_resources/v048/48.4.garcia-gomez.html (November 19, 2014).
  • García-Gómez, Pilar, Hans van Kippersluis, Owen O’Donnell, and Eddy van Doorslaer. 2013. “Long-Term and Spillover Effects of Health Shocks on Employment and Income.” Journal of Human Resources 48(4): 873–909.
  • Giddens, Antony. 1973. The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies. London: Hutchinson.
  • Goldman, D.P., and J.P. Smith. 2002. “Can Patient Self-Management Help Explain the SES Health Gradient?” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(16): 10929–34.
  • Goldthorpe, John. 1980. Social Mobility and Class Structure in Modern Britain. Oxford: Claredon Press.
  • Golinowska, Stanisława, ed. 2007. Polityka zdrowotna wobec dostępności opieki zdrowotnej, wykluczenia oraz nierówności w zdrowiu. Warszawa: Instytut Pracy i Spraw Socjalnych.
  • Golinowska, Stanisława. 2007. Polityka zdrowotna wobec dostępności opieki zdrowotnej, wykluczenia oraz nierówności w zdrowiu. Warszawa.
  • Golinowska, Stanisława. 2011. “Przestrzenny wymiar nierówności zdrowia i polityka spójności”. Zdrowie Publiczne i Zarządzanie IX(2): 38–54.
  • Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cesar, Rafael Samper-Ternent, Rebeca Wong, and Alberto Palloni. 2014. “Mortality Inequality among Older Adults in Mexico: The Combined Role of Infectious and Chronic Diseases.” Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica 35(2): 89–95.
  • Gould, Stephen Jay. 1996. The Mismeasure of Man. 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Graham, Hilary. 2004. “Social Determinants and Their Unequal Distribution: Clarifying Policy Understandings.” Milbank Quarterly 82(1): 101–24. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0887-378X.2004.00303.x/full (No-vember 13, 2014).
  • Gruenewald, T.L. and A.S. Karlamangla. 2012. “History of Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Allostatic Load in Later Life.” Social Science & Medicine 74: 75–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.09.037 (May 23, 2014).
  • Hanson, Margaret D. and Edith Chen. 2007. “Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors in Adolescence: A Review of the Literature.” Journal of behavioral medicine 30(3): 263–85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17514418 (May 23, 2014).
  • Hemmingsson, Tomas, Ingvar Lundberg, and Finn Diderichsen. 1999. “The Roles of Social Class of Origin, Achieved Social Class and Intergenerational Social Mobility in Explaining Social-Class Inequalities in Alcoholism among Young Men.” Social science & Medicine 49: 1051–59.
  • Hou, Feng, and John Myles. 2005. “Neighbourhood Inequality, Neighbourhood Affluence and Population Health.” Social Science & Medicine 60(7): 1557–69. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15652687 (May 23, 2014).
  • Huure, Taina, Ossi Rahkonen, Erkki Komulainen, and Hillevi Aro. 2005. “Socioeconomic Status as a Cause and Consequence of Psychosomatic Symptoms from Adolescence to Adulthood.” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 40: 580–87.
  • Indulski, Janusz, and Marian Matulewicz. 1986. “Pieniężne i niepieniężne bariery równości społecznej w ochronie zdrowia. Cz.1. Kilka obserwacji empirycznych.” Zdrowie Publiczne 97(4): 157–65.
  • IOM. 2003. The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century. The national academic press.
  • Kaczmarek, Tadeusz et al. 2007. “Nierównoœści Społeczne w dostępie do zdrowia.” Problemy Higieny i Epidemiologii 88(3): 256–66.
  • Van Kippersluis, Hans, Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, and Tom van Ourti. 2010. “Socioeconomic Differences in Health over the Life Cycle in an Egalitarian Country.” Social Science & Medicine 70(3): 428–38.
  • Van Kippersluis, Hans, Tom van Ourti, Owen O’Donnell, and Eddy van Doorslaer. 2009. “Health and Income across the Life Cycle and Generations in Europe.” Journal of Health Economics 28: 818–30.
  • Kirschbaum, Clemens et al. 1999. “Impact of Gender, Menstrual Cycle Phase, and Oral Contraceptives on the Activity of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.” Psychomatic Medicine 61: 154–62.
  • Kogevinas, M. and M. Porta. 1997. “Socioeconomic Differences in Cancer Survival: A Review of the Evidence.” IARC Scientific Publications (138): 177–206. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/13875194_Socioeconomic_differences_in_cancer_survival_a_review_of_the_evidence/file/50463515881871d2b6.pdf (May 23, 2014).
  • Korzeniowska, Elżbieta, and Krzysztof Puchalski. 2010. Nisko wykształceni pracownicy a zdrowie – wyzwania dla edukacji zdrowotnej. Riga.
  • Koster, Annemarie et al. 2006. “Association of Inflammatory Markers with Socioeconomic Status.” Journal of Gerontology 61(3): 284–90.
  • Krieger, Nancy, Jarvis T Chen, Brent a Coull, and Joe V Selby. 2005. “Lifetime Socioeconomic Position and Twins’ Health: An Analysis of 308 Pairs of United States Women Twins.” PLoS medicine 2(7): e162. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181870&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract (November 13, 2014).
  • Krueger, Patrick M. and Virginia W. Chang. 2008. “Being Poor and Coping With Stress: Health Behaviors and the Risk of Death.” American Journal of Public Health 98(5): 889–96.
  • Krzyżanowski, Michał, and Bogdan Wojtyniak. 1982. “Ten-Year Mortality in a Sample of an Adult Population in Relation to Air Pollution.” Journal of Epide-miology and Community Health 36: 262–68.
  • Kuh, D., Y. Ben-Shlomo and J. Lynch. 2003. “Life Course Epidemiology.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57: 778–83.
  • Kunst, Anton E., Feikje Groenhof and Johan P. Mackenbach. 1998. “Occupational Class and Cause Specific Mortality in Middle Aged Men in 11 European Countries: Comparison of Population Based Studies.” British Medical Journal 316(7145): 1636–41.
  • Lantz, Paula M., James S. House, Richard P. Mero and David R. Williams. 2005. “Stress, Life Events, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Health: Results from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 46(3): 274–88.
  • Larson, Nicole I., Mary T. Story and Melissa C. Nelson. 2009. “Neighborhood Envi-ronments: Disparities in Access to Healthy Foods in the U.S.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 36(1): 74–81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18977112 (May 27, 2014).
  • Layte, Richard, and Christopher T. Whelan. 2008. “Explaining Social Class Inequali-ties in Smoking: The Role of Education, Self-Efficacy, and Deprivation.” European Sociological Review 25(4): 399–410. http://esr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/doi/10.1093/esr/jcn022 (May 28, 2014).
  • Link, Bruce G. 2008. “Epidemiological Sociology and Social Shaping of the Popula-tion Health.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 49(December): 367–84.
  • Link, Bruce G. and Jo C. Phelan. 1995. “Social Conditions as Fundamental Causes of Disease.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 35: 80–94.
  • Link, Bruce G., Jo C. Phelan, Richard Miech, and Emily Leckman Westin. 2008. “The Resources That Matter: Fundamental Social Causes of Health Disparities and the Challenge of Intelligence.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 49(1): 72–91.
  • Lloyd, Donna, Sallie Newell, and Uta C Dietrich. 2004. Health Inequity: A Review of the Literature. Lismore.
  • Lostao, Lourdes et al. 2014. “Socioeconomic Patterns in Use of Private and Public Health Services in Spain and Britain: Implications for Equity in Health Care.” Health & Place 25: 19–25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24220645 (May 23, 2014).
  • Lozano, Rafael et al. 2012. “Global and Regional Mortality from 235 Causes of Death for 20 Age Groups in 1990 and 2010: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.” Lancet 380(9859): 2095–2128. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245604 (July 10, 2014).
  • Lynch, J. W., G.A. Kaplan and J.T. Salonen. 1997. “Why Do Poor People Behave Poorly? Variation in Adult Health Behaviours and Psychosocial Characteristics by Stages of the Socioeconomic Lifecourse.” Social Science & Medicine 44(6): 809–19.
  • Mackenbach, Johan P. et al. 2008. “Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health in 22 European Countries.” New England Journal of Medicine 23(358): 2468–81.
  • De Maio, Fernando. 2010. “Health Inequalities.” In Health and Social Theory, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 56–91.
  • Mair, C. a V. Diez Roux and. S Galea. 2008. “Are Neighbourhood Characteristics Associated with Depressive Symptoms? A Review of Evidence.” Journal of Epi-demiology and Community Health 62(11): 940–46. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18775943 (May 28, 2014).
  • Marek, Michał, Dorota Chłoń-Domińczak, Agnieszka Kaleta, Joanna Mazur, Tomasz Miśkiewicz, Paulina Poznańska, Dorota Stokwiszewski, Jakub Wojtyniak and Bogdan Zdrojewski. 2012. Społeczne nierówności w zdrowiu w Polsce. Copenhagen.
  • Marmot, Michael. 2005. “Social Determinants of Health Inequalities.” The Lancet 365: 1099–1104.
  • Marmot, Michael G. et al. 2010. Fair Society, Healthy Lives. Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England Post-2010. Public Health England.
  • Marmot, Michael, and Richard Wilkinson, eds. 2006. Social Determinants of Health. II. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • McEwen, Bruce S, and Teresa Seeman. 1999. “Protective and Damaging Effects of Mediators of Stress. Elaborating and Testing the Concepts of Allostasis and Al-lostatic Load.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 896: 30–47.
  • McGinnis, J. Michael, Pamela Williams-Russo, and James R. Knickman. 2002. “The Case For More Active Policy Attention To Health Promotion.” Health Affairs 21(2): 78–93. http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.21.2.78 (May 27, 2014).
  • Minkler, Meredith, Esme Fuller-Thomson, and Jack M. Guralnik. 2006. “Gradient of Disability across the Socioeconomic Spectrum in the United States.” The New England Journal of Medicine 355: 695–703. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16914705.
  • Mokdad, Ali H., James S. Marks, Donna F. Stroup, and Julie L. Gerberding. 2014. “Actual Causes of Death in the United States , 2000.” Journal of American Medical Association 291(10): 1238–45.
  • Musterd, Sako. 2005. “Social and Ethnic Segregation in Europe: Levels, Causes, and Effects.” Journal of Urban Affairs 27(3): 331–48.
  • Niederdeppe, Jeff, and Andrea Gurmankin Levy. 2007. “Fatalistic Beliefs about Cancer Prevention and Three Prevention Behaviors.” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 16(5): 998–1003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17507628 (May 28, 2014).
  • O’Donnell, Owen, Eddy van Doorslaer, and Adam Wagstaff. 2006. “Decomposition of Inequalities in Health and Health Care.” In The Elgar Companion to Health Economics, ed. AM Jones. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Obrist, B., C. Pfeiffer, and R. Henley. 2010. “Multi-Layered Social Resilience: A New Approach in Mitigation Research.” Progress in Development Studies 10(4): 283–93.
  • Omran, Abdel R. 2005. “The Epidemiological Transition: A Theory of the Epidemiology of Population Change.” The Milbank Quarterly 83(4): 731–57 (reprint).
  • Or, Zeynep, Florence Jusot, and Engin Yilmaz. 2008. Impact of Health Care System on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Doctor Use. Paris.
  • Ostrowska, Antonina. 1983. “Elements of the Health Culture of Polish Society.” Social Science & Medicine 17: 631–36.
  • Ostrowska, Antonina. 1998. “Nierówności w sferze zdrowia.” Kultura i Społeczeństwo XLII(2): 149–63.
  • Ostrowska, Antonina. 2000. “Społeczne czynniki warunkujące zachowania prozdrowotne – bilans dekady.” Promocja Zdrowia. Nauki Społeczne i Medycyna VII(19): 46–65.
  • Ostrowska, Antonina. 2001. “In and out of Communism: The Macrosocial Context of Health in Poland.” In The Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology, ed. William C. Cockerham. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 334–47.
  • Ostrowska, Antonina. 2010. “Zróżnicowania społeczne i nierówności w zdrowiu.” In Socjologia z medycyną. W kręgu myśli naukowej Magdaleny Sokołowskiej, ed. Włodzimierz Piątkowski. Warszawa: IFiS Publishers, 25–47.
  • Pampel, Fred C., Patrick M. Krueger, and Justin T. Denney. 2010. “Socioeconomic Disparities in Health Behaviors.” Annual Review of Sociology 36: 349–70. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3169799&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract (May 23, 2014).
  • Papas, Mia a et al. 2007. “The Built Environment and Obesity.” Epidemiologic Reviews 29(27): 129–43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17533172 (May 28, 2014).
  • Phelan, J.C., and B.G. Link. 2005. “Controlling Disease and Creating Disparities: A Fundamental Cause Perspective.” Journals of Gerontology: Series B 60(Special Issue II): 27–33.
  • Phelan, Jo C., Bruce G Link, and Parisa Tehranifar. 2010. “Social Conditions as Fundamental Causes of Health Inequalities: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Impli-cations.” Journal of health and social behavior 51 (S): S28–40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943581 (February 27, 2013).
  • Robert, Stephanie A. 1999. “Socioeconomic Position and Health: The Independent Contribution of Community Socioeconomic Context.” Annual Review of Sociology 25: 489–516.
  • Rosmond, R, and P Björntorp. 2000. “Occupational Status, Cortisol Secretory Pat-tern, and Visceral Obesity in Middle-Aged Men.” Obesity research 8(6): 445–50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11011911.
  • Sapolsky, Robert. 2005. “Sick of Poverty.” Scientific American 293(6): 92–99.
  • Schieman, Scott, Yuko K Whitestone, and Karen Van Gundy. 2006. “The Nature of Work and the Stress of Higher Status.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 47(September): 242–57.
  • Słońska, Zofia, and Jacek Koziarek. 2011. “Społecznie nierówności w zdrowiu – efekt medykalizacji promocji zdrowia?” Zdrowie Publiczne i Zarządzanie IX(2): 64–75.
  • Smith, George Davey, Mel Bartley, and David Blane. 1990. “The Black Report Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health 10 Years on.” British Medical Journal 301: 373–77.
  • Smith, Kirsten P., and Nicholas A. Christakis. 2008. “Social Networks and Health.” Annual Review of Sociology 34: 405–18.
  • Sørensen, Torben Højmark, Kim Rose Olsen, and Peter Vedsted. 2009. “Association between General Practice Referral Rates and Patients’ Socioeconomic Status and Access to Specialised Health Care a Population-Based Nationwide Study.” Health policy 92(2-3): 180–86. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394106 (May 23, 2014).
  • Sowa, Agnieszka. 2010. “O nierównościach w korzystaniu z usług ochrony zdrowia ze względu na wykształcenie.” Polityka Społeczna (9): 33–36.
  • Sowa, Agnieszka. 2011. “Społeczne uwarunkowania stanu zdrowia w Polsce”. Zdrowie Publiczne i Zarządzanie (2): 28037. http://www.ceeol.com/aspx/getdocument.aspx?logid=5&id=f45bcb2f2e8a4a478b83b292d57ff8f0 (February 14, 2014).
  • Stringhini, Silvia et al. 2010. “Association of Socioeconomic Position with Health Behaviors and Mortality.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 303(12): 1159–66. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2918905&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract.
  • Stringhini, Silvia et al. 2010. 2011. “Health Behaviours, Socioeconomic Status, and Mortality: Further Analyses of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL Prospective Cohorts.” PLoS medicine 8(2): e1000419. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3043001&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract (March 16, 2012).
  • Syme, Leonard S., and Lisa F. Berkman. 2009. “Social Class, Susceptibility, and Sickness.” In The Sociology of Health and Illness. Critical Perspectives., ed. Peter Conrad. New York: Worth Publishers, 24–30.
  • Szlendak, Tomasz, and Arkadiusz Karwacki. 2010. “Koncepcja poziomicy – cudowne lekarstwo czy utopijna terapia?” Studia Socjologiczne 1(196): 35–67.
  • Tehranifar, Parisa et al. 2009. “Medical Advances and Racial/ethnic Disparities in Cancer Survival.” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 18(10): 2701–8. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3665008&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract (October 29, 2014).
  • Ten Leading Causes of Death in the United States. 1980. Atlanta.
  • Thoits, Peggy A. 2006. “Personal Agency in the Stress Process.” Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 47(December): 309–23.
  • Thompson, Paul. 2004. “Researching Family and Social Mobility with Two Eyes: Some Experiences of the Interaction between Qualitative and Quantitative Data.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology 7(3): 237–57. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1364557021000024785 (October 21, 2014).
  • Titkow, Anna. 1983. Zachowania i postawy wobec zdrowia i choroby. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
  • Turek, Konrad, Jolanta Perek-Białas, and Justyna Stypińska. 2015. “Socio-Economic Status in Ageing Poland: A Question of Cumulative Advantages and Disadvantages.” In Lifecourse Perspective on Ageing Populations: A Critical and International Approach, eds. K Komp and S Johansson. Bristol: The Policy Press.
  • Veenstra, Gerry et al. 2005. “Who You Know, Where You Live: Social Capital, Neighbourhood and Health.” Social Science & Medicine (1982) 60(12): 2799–2818. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15820588 (May 23, 2014).
  • Victora, Cesar G et al. 2003. “Applying an Equity Lens to Child Health and Mortality: More of the Same Is Not Enough.” The Lancet 362: 233–41.
  • Virchow, Rudolf Carl. 2006. “Report on the Typhus Epidemic in Upper Silesia.” American Journal of Public Health 96(12): 2102–5.
  • Wagstaff, Adam, and Eddy van Doorslaer. 2000. “Income Inequality and Health: What Does the Literature Tell Us?” Annual Review of Public Health 21: 543–67. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10884964.
  • Wagstaff, Adam, Eddy van Doorslaer, and Naoko Watanabe. 2003. “On Decomposing the Causes of Health Sector Inequalities with an Application to Malnutrition Inequalities in Vietnam.” Journal of Econometrics 112: 207–23.
  • Warren, John R. 2009. “Status and Health Across the Life Course: A Socioeconomic and Health Selection Test of the Social Causation Hypotheses.” Social Forces 87(4): 2125–53.
  • WHO. 2008. “What Are Social Determinants of Health?” World Health Organisa-tion. http://www.who.int/social_determinants/sdh_definition/en/.
  • Wilkinson, Richard G. 1986. Class and Health: Research and Longitudinal Data. London: Tavistock.
  • Wilkinson, Richard G. 1994. “The Epidemiological Transition: From Material Scarcity to Social Disadvantage?” Daedalus 123(4): 61–77.
  • Wilkinson, Richard, and Kate Picket. 2009. The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Socie-ties Almost Always Do Bettter. London: Allen Lane.
  • Willson, Andrea E, Kim M. Shuey, and Glen H. Jr. Elder. 2007. “Cumulative Ad-vantage Processes as Mechanisms of Inequality in Life Course health1.” Ameri-can Journal of Sociology 112(6): 1886–1924.
  • Włodarczyk, Cezary. 2011. “Problemy nierówności w zdrowiu. Perspektywa Unii Europejskiej.” Zdrowie Publiczne i Zarządzanie IX(2): 5–21.
  • Wnuk-Lipiński, E. 1990. “The Polish Country Profile: Economic Crisis and Inequali-ties in Health.” Social Science & Medicine 31(8): 859–66. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2259960.
  • Wolfson, Michael et al. 2014. “Relation between Income Inequality and Mortality: Empirical Demonstration.” British Medical Journal 319(7215): 953–55.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-585f66e3-9f9c-44f4-97db-cae156df3069
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.