Od prawa naturalnego do praw człowieka. Ewolucja idei praw naturalnych w europejskiej myśli prawno-politycznej
From natural law to human rights. The evolution of the idea of natural rights in the European legal and political thought
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The subject of the article is the transformation of the idea of natural law into the idea of natural rights, which took place in Europe between Greek and Roman Antiquity and the17th century, the last stage of this process was the origin of the idea human rights in the 18th century. The author focuses on the most important aspects of this evolution: transition from the understanding of law as a rational order to its conception as an expression of will, giving up the justification of law by human natural goals and justifying it by human desires instead. Finally, the author refers to the conception of Hannah Arendt, who argued that the identification of the source of political order with the subjective rights, understood as pre-political, leads to the destabilisation of the political sphere and the identification of authority with violence. The result is the disappearance of individuality, which took place in totalitarian regimes.
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