Vzťahové a interpersonálne špecifiká životnej pohody v súvislosti s pracovným výkonom zamestnancov kontaktných centier
Attachment and Interpersonal Specifics of Well-Being in Relation to Employee Job Performance of Contact Centres
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The research is focused on exploring of multiple relations between interpersonal and attachment characteristics, job performance, job satisfaction and well-being of employees in contact centres. Global assessment of well-being represents cognitive and emotional approach of one´s life as a whole. However, global view can be deformed by distorted perception of reality, so therefore it is necessary to evaluate well-being not only in general, but also as many different aspects of human life. This study is focused on working environment as one of the significant parts of life. Our sample consisted of 176 employees of contact centres, 116 of them were women (65,91%) and 60 men (34,09%). The age range was from 21 to 56 years (average – 29,78 years). The average length of employment of a telephone operator was 14 months. The major part of workforce were workers in permanent employment – 54,55% (N = 96), performance contract employees – 40,91% (N = 72), students employed based on agreement on temporary job of student – 3,41% (N = 6) and freelancers / self-employed – 1,14% (N = 2). The quantitative and qualitative data were obtained using standardised questionnaires. A short form of Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran (s-E.M.B.U.; Willem et al., 1999), which is based on Bowlby attachment theory, was used to measure attachment style. The interpersonal characteristics were measured by Interpersonal Check List (ICL; Kožený & Ganický, 1976). The job performance was measured by means of a call centre software system called Aheeva CCS Manager. Other questionnaires were focused on job satisfaction and well-being. The evaluation of job satisfaction was realised by means of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ; Weiss et al., 1967) and well-being was measured by means of two questionnaires - Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) and Scales of Psychological Well-Being (SPWB; Ryff, 1989). The results of this study confirmed the relationship between attachment styles and interpersonal characteristics in job satisfaction, which is strongly connected with well-being. Job satisfaction is a statistically significant predictor of well-being, but it has not been clearly demonstrated that increased job satisfaction contributes to a better job performance. Regression analysis indicated that attachment characteristics (secure attachment style), interpersonal characteristics (affiliation, dominance and submissiveness) and job satisfaction are significant predictors of well-being for employees in telemarketing. These findings suggested that secure attachement style and interpersonal characteristics contribute to a higher job satisfaction and well-being as well as minimalise emotional problems and reduce the possibility of burn-out syndrome. The results also indicated that employees, who scored higher in dimensions affiliation, dominance and submissiveness, experienced a higher job satisfaction. The partial results showed gender differences, especially women demonstrated a higher performance, particularly in the group of married workers. The highest work performance was identified in the age group of 30-39 years old employees. Significantly low levels of well-being were identified in the group of divorced emploeeys aged 50 to 59 years. Based on these findings an optimum profile of potential employees in contact centres can be formed. A confirmation in a larger sample is needed. Further directions are discussed in research study.
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