Can Indirect, Delayed Error Correction Improve Students’ Willingness to Speak in the Target Language?
Languages of publication
At a high school where I have worked as a visiting lecturer, students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) tend to use their mother tongue (L1) instead of the target language (L2) in communicative activities. Many factors are to blame for this issue, such as the seating arrangement, the language curriculum, the influences from the interlocutors, and the teacher correction methods (Pham 2005). This study aims to propose a strategy to correct student errors during communicative activities. Data analysis shows that the strategy of error correction that a teacher uses will have a substantial impact on student use of L2 in oral activities. Drawing from such fi ndings, I suggest some practical teaching strategies to maximize L2 and minimize L1 in speaking activities.
- Brown, Douglas. 2000. Principle of Language Teaching and Learning. England: Pearson Education Limited.
- Carroll, Susanne, Merrill Swain, and Yves Roberge. 1992. “The Role of Feedback in Adult Second Language Acquisition: Error Correction and Morphological Generalizations.” Applied Psycholinguistics 13.2: 173–198.
- Chandler, Jean. 2003. “The Effi cacy of Various Kinds of Error Feedback for Improvement in the Accuracy and Fluency of L2 Student Writing.” Journal of Second Language Writing 12: 267–296.
- Diab, Rula. 2005. “EFL University Students’ Preferences for Error Correction and Teacher Feedback on Writing.” TESL Reporter 38.1: 27–51.
- Doff , Adrian. 1988. Teach English. A Training Course for Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Dulay, Heidi, Marina Burt, and Stephen Krashen. 1982. Language Two. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Ellis, Rod. 1997. Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Ellis, Rod. 1999. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Enginarlar, Husnu 1993. “Student Response to Teacher Feedback in EFL Writing.” System 21.2: 193–204.
- Ferris, Dana. 1995. “Student Reactions to Teacher Response in Multiple-draft Composition Classrooms.” TESOL Quarterly 29.1: 33–53.
- Ferris, Dana, and Barrie Roberts. 2001. “Error Feedback in L2 Writing Classes: How Explicit Does It Need to Be?” Journal of Second Language Learning 10: 161–184.
- Guenette, Danielle. 2007. “Is Feedback Pedagogically Correct? Research Design Issues in Studies of Feedback on Writing.” Journal of Second Language Writing 16: 40–53.
- Hoang, Minh Phuong, and Tuan Van. 2006. English 11. Ha Noi: Education Publishing House.
- Holliday, Adrian. 1994. Appropriate Methodology and Social Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Karra, Maria. 2006. “Second Language Acquisition: Learners’ Errors and Error Correction in Language Teaching.” http://www.proz.com/translation-articles/ articles/633/1/Second-Language-Acquisition:-Learners%27-Errors-and-ErrorCorrection-in-Language-Teaching
- Kasanga, Luanga. 2001. “Responding to Feedback in Revision in Multiple-draft Writing.” TESL Reporter 34.2: 1–14.
- Larsen-Freeman, Diane, and Michael Long. 1991. An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
- Lee, Icy. 1997. “ESL Learners’ Performance in Error Correction in Writing: Some Implications for Teaching.” System 25.4: 465–477.
- Littlewood, William. 1998. Foreign and Second Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Markee, Numa. 1997. Managing Curricular Innovation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Martínez, Susana Gomez. 1999. “Should We Correct Our Students Errors in L2 Learning?” http://dspace.uah.es/dspace/bitstream/10017/1202/1/08-Gomez.pdf
- Nunan, David. 2001. Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Pham, Tan. 2005. “Causes and Eff ects of Mother Tongues on English Classrooms in Vietnam.” Teaching and Learning English 12.14: 33–34.
- Song, Geraldine, Lee Hwee Hoon, and Leong Ping Alvin. 2017. “Students’ Response to Feedback: An Exploratory Study.” RELC Journal 48.3: 357–372.
- Truscott, John. 1996. “Review Article: The Case Against Grammar Correction in L2 Writing Classes.” Language Learning 46.2: 327–369.
- White, Ronald. 1988. The ELT Curriculum: Design, Innovation and Management. Oxford: Blackwell.
Publication order reference