Еволюційні тенденції у діяльності ліворадикальних організацій Західної Європи (Італія, Іспанія, Франція, Німеччина)
Evolutional Tendencies in the Activity of the Left Radical Organizations in Western Europe (Italy, Spain, France and Germany)
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The main evolution tendencies of the radical left organizations of the largest counties of Western Europe (Italy, Spain, France and Germany) are researched in the article. It consists of the analysis of their origins, development and modern condition. The actuality of the article is the necessity of the political historical analysis of forms and manifestations of the phenomenon. It is also important to study such its features as variety, ideological transformations and dynamic processes. The researching of the new tendencies of left-wing political parties and movements in the well-developed European countries is very useful for Ukraine in the context of the decommunization process. The term «radicalism» ( from Latin, radix – root) is used to characterize the extreme-orientated organizations, parties, movements and groups which show their inclination to the radical reformation of the modern social political institutions to solve different social problems. Left radicalism is the social political phenomenon, based on the aspiration of political active groups of some people for destruction of the existed system of the state authority to put in practice the ideas of the «society of justice» and communist conceptions of ХІХ-ХХ centuries. The main tendencies of the modern leftwing groups are: 1) Revolutionary idea. They support the idea of the transformation and the elimination of the existed social regime by the upheaval; 2) Anti-capitalism. Left radicals rudely criticize the world economic system as the form of the slavery of the end of XX century – the beginning of XXI century. It is characterized by the domination of the great corporations’ interests; 3) Democratic centralism. A man has the right of choice in the different fields of social life. Only one political party or group gets the state power; 4) Strategy of protest. Left radicals take part in single terroristic acts or organisations and various movements of protests. 5) Armed struggle. Using of the violence is one of the main methods to influence the community. For example in the second half of XX century, many powerful extreme-left terroristic groups acted in Western Europe. They are «RAF» (Germany), «Red Brigades» (Italy), «GRAPO» Spain, «Action Directe» (France). The fundamental principles of the left radicalism are the idea of the society of justice and critical analysis of state imperialist policy. Left radicals call for the elimination of the capitalist system and building of the socialism by the revolutionary-armed fight. The most part of the left movements and political parties are anti-American. They fight against the political influence of the USA as the centre of world imperialism and call states for leaving such imperialistic organisation as the NATO. There is the ideological regionalism of the political radicalism in Europe. Its various kinds dominate in the different parts of the country. These ideological orientations depend on many social economic and historical factors. For example, we can see the ideological regionalism in Italy between North (right wing radicalism) and South (left wing radicalism) and in Germany between West (far left) and East (far right). In general, in the modern Europe comparing extreme right and extreme left, we can see the decadence of the far left and the activation of the far right political tendencies. The main reason of extreme right success is the modern migrant crisis in European countries. Left radicals are popular only in the countries with political economic crisis and associated with populism. The researchers of left radicalism distinguish three potential electoral groups of far left political parties and movements: 1) Extreme left subcultures. They are groups or people who have taken part in the various demonstrations and have been a member of the far left political party for a long time; 2) Left centrists. They have neutral political position and prefer vote for “green” parties; 3) Protesters. They are groups of young people who support the populist tactics and join different demonstrations against globalization and the EU. In the second half of the XX century left radicalism was more aggressive then the right one in the biggest countries of Europe. The most powerful terroristic organisations of this period were left wing. They are «Red Brigades», «RAF», «GRAPO» and «ETA». The scientists connect the “revival” of left ideologies in Western Europe after the Second World War with the spreading of anti-fascist ideas in the former fascist and national-socialist countries (Italy, Germany, Spain, Romania, Hungary and Portugal etc.). Today political radicals actively influence the internal and external policy of the European Union. The main vectors of their activity are the fight against the EU enlargement, the limitation of immigration, the revision of the social guarantees for migrants and their families and the state control in all spheres of a society. All these issues were manifested in the attempt to stop the temporary regime of the implementation of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement in September 2014. The activity of the Eurosceptics led to the enlargement of the number ( 99 up to 124) of the representatives of right and left out-system organisations in the European parliament in 2014. The European left parties even established political block, called «European United Left – Nordic Green Left (GUE-NGL)».
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