PECULIARITIES OF JOURNALISM EDUCATION IN THE USA AND CANADA: THE WAY FROM CRAFT TO PROFESSION
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The article dwells upon the stages of journalism education development in the USA and Canada. It traces back the history of the first journalism schools and how the profession of a journalist emerges at the university level. The article also describes attempts to launch educational programs for printers and publishers and explains the most significant reasons for the failure of this experiment: the first one is because of the lack of funding and another one is the contradictory attitude of professional community toward the idea of journalism education. The main part is focused on the features of journalism education in the USA. It informs about the first well known journalism school at the University of Missouri in 1908 and various theories of American scholars concerning journalism. It is necessary to emphasize the fact that the emergence of Bachelor, Master and Ph. Degrees in the USA universities played a key role in journalism education. The article also shows the ways how journalism moves from craft to profession and difficulties which it faces up. In contrast to the USA, the article provides the specific peculiarities of journalism education in Canada. It is determined that Canada takes the Anglo-American tradition of journalism but it also has some distinguished features. It is found out that the journalism education was developed much more slowly by comparison to the USA. Besides differences some similarities are defined: like in the USA there are the stages of moving journalism from craft to profession, some drawbacks in working out curricula, lacking of funding etc. Another fact typical for both is based on the lack of establishment of vocational journalism trainings and courses which will give more chances to obtain professional knowledge, skills and qualifications. It was pointed out that the tendencies in higher education reforming of Canada and the USA are distinguished including higher education on a large scale; increased requirements for quality education and active participation in the improvement of curriculum. Taking into account the information said above, it is found out that social changes which occur in both countries influence the journalism education and need to be further researched.
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