2012 | 23 | 300-323
Article title

Stosunki między kościołami a władzą świecką w wybranych koloniach angielskich w Ameryce Północnej w XVII wieku

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This article describes relations between churches and civil government in the following 17th century English colonies in North America: Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland and Virginia. It should be marked that in the northern colonies all political communities created at that times were based on a congregationalism. Political rights depended on a status of freeman which was granted if an individual belonged to an approved church. Rhode Island had a special status in this context as this colony was to be characterised by a freedom of religion from its beginning. Such a freedom was also proclaimed in the middle colonies. An original shape of this postulate was assumed in Pennsylvania as documents enacted by this colony did not grant religious privileges to denominations existed there. Religious sphere was pushed aside in the southern colonie mainly because of the economic aims of the colonization of this area. Nonetheless, one can find legal rules embracing orders and prohibitions formulated in the spirit of the Anglican Church. On the basis of colonial constitutional rules following patterns of relations between church and civil government should be indicated: quasi-theocratic with limited freedom of religion, anglican with limited freedom of religion, limited separation with formally guaranted freedom of religion, constitutional separation with formally guaranted freedom of religion and mixed one. Researches presented here were elaborated according to the following methods: an analysis of legal sources and analysis of literature, including materials printed in colonial times.
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